NURS 6521 Week 5 EmmaGarcia Diabetes and Drug Treatments Discussion

Post a brief explanation of the differences between the types of diabetes, including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes. Describe one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected, including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Be sure to include dietary considerations related to treatment. Then, explain the short-term and long-term impact of this type of diabetes on patients. including effects of drug treatments. Be specific and provide examples.

Diabetes and Drug Treatments

Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood. The main types of diabetes are type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes, and juvenile diabetes (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021).

Type 1 Diabetes

This type occurs when the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. As a result, the body cannot produce enough insulin, requiring individuals with type 1 diabetes to take insulin injections or use an insulin pump to manage their blood sugar levels. One drug commonly used to treat type 1 diabetes is insulin. Insulin can be administered through subcutaneous injections or via an insulin pump (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021). Before injecting insulin, it is important to prepare the injection site by cleaning the area with an alcohol swab. The preparation and administration process may vary depending on the specific insulin product, so it is crucial to follow the instructions provided by the healthcare provider or the manufacturer.

Dietary considerations for individuals with type 1 diabetes involve monitoring carbohydrate intake and balancing it with insulin dosages. This helps to maintain stable blood sugar levels. Carbohydrate counting, meal planning, and timing insulin doses are important strategies in managing this type of diabetes. The short-term impact of type 1 diabetes can includes symptoms such as frequent urination, excessive thirst, weight loss, fatigue, and blurred vision. If left untreated or poorly managed, it can lead to a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), which is a potentially life-threatening complication (Ho et al., 2021). Long-term effects of uncontrolled type 1 diabetes may include damage to the blood vessels, nerves, kidneys, eyes and an increased risk of heart disease.

Type 2 Diabetes

This type is characterized by insulin resistance, where the body becomes less responsive to the effects of insulin. It is often associated with lifestyle factors such as obesity and physical inactivity, although genetic factors also play a role. Initially, the pancreas produces extra insulin to compensate for the resistance, but over time, it may not keep up, resulting in high blood sugar levels. Various medications are used to treat type 2 diabetes, depending on the individual’s needs (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021). One example is metformin, which helps reduce glucose production in the liver and improves insulin sensitivity in the body. Metformin is typically taken orally in tablet form, usually with meals or as directed by the healthcare provider.

In addition to medication, dietary considerations for type 2 diabetes involve adopting a balanced diet that includes whole grains, fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and healthy fats. Limiting the intake of sugary foods, processed carbohydrates, and unhealthy fats is also essential. The short-term impact of uncontrolled type 2 diabetes may include symptoms similar to type 1 diabetes, such as frequent urination, increased thirst, fatigue, and blurred vision. In the long term, poorly managed type 2 diabetes can lead to complications like cardiovascular disease, kidney damage, nerve damage (neuropathy), and eye problems (retinopathy) (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021).


Ho, J., Rosolowsky, E., Pacaud, D., Huang, C., Lemay, J. A., Brockman, N., Rath, M. & Doulla, M. (2021). Diabetic ketoacidosis at type 1 diabetes diagnosis in children during the COVID‐19 pandemic. Pediatric Diabetes, 22(4), 552–557.

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.