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Negligence in Healthcare Presentation Discussion 3
Negligence in Healthcare Presentation Discussion 3
However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package inserts of all drugs for any change in indications of dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Copyright © 2016, 2011, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030. Many of the designations by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Blais, Kathleen, author. Professional nursing practice : concepts and perspectives/Kathleen Koernig Blais, Janice S. Hayes. — Seventh edition. p. ; cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-13-380131-6 — ISBN 0-13-380131-4 I. Hayes, Janice S., author. II. Title. [DNLM: 1. Nursing. 2. Nurse’s Role. 3. Nursing Theory. WY 16 AA1] RT84.5 610.73—dc23 2015004901 ISBN-10: 0-13-380131-4 ISBN-13: 978-0-13-380131-6 Dedication I dedicate this book to all who have taught me; my teachers past and present; my students, who continue to challenge me and make me a better teacher; and, most of all, David, Sarah, Harrison, and Margaret. Kathleen Blais This work is dedicated to Sierra, Marc, Otto, and Vinnie who motivate and inspire me to reach out to a new generation of nurses. Janice S. Hayes This page intentionally left blank About the Authors Kathleen Blais Kathleen Blais received her Diploma in nursing from Temple University Hospital School of Nursing (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), her BSN and MSEd from Florida International University (Miami, Florida), MSN from the University of Miami (Miami, Florida), and EdD from Florida Atlantic University (Boca Raton, Florida). She has taught in both undergraduate and graduate nursing programs. Dr. Blais has held faculty and academic leadership positions throughout her career. She is currently a Professor Emerita of Nursing at Florida International University Nicole Wertheim College of Nursing and Health Sciences. Janice S. Hayes Janice Hayes received her BSN from the University of Evansville, MSN from Indiana University, and PhD from Purdue University. She has taught both in undergraduate and graduate nursing programs as well as providing research leadership with clinical institutions. Dr. Hayes has maintained a research trajectory in the areas of development risk and trauma outcomes. She has served as the Assistant Director for Graduate Programs in the School of Nursing at the University of Northern Colorado. ix This page intentionally left blank Thank You Thanks go to our colleagues from schools of nursing around the world, who generously gave their time to help create this book. These professionals helped us plan and shape our book by contributing their collective experience and expertise as nurses and teachers, and we made many improvements based on their efforts. Contributors Catherine E. Dingley, PhD, RN, FNP Post Doctoral Research Fellow University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah Kathleen Dunemn, PhD, APRN, CNM-BC Associate Professor University of Northern Colorado Greeley, Colorado J. Craig Phillips, PhD, LLM, RN, ARNP, PMHCNS-BC, ACRN Negligence in Healthcare Presentation Discussion 3
Associate Professor of Nursing University of Ottawa Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Rhonda D. Squires, PhD, APRN-BC, FNP Assistant Professor University of Northern Colorado Greeley, Colorado Reviewers Barbara Celia, EdD, RN Clinical Assistant Professor Drexel University College of Nursing and Health Professions Philadelphia, Pennsylvania A. Kate Eby, MN, APRN, ONC, FNP-C, CNE Lecturer, RN-BSN Program Frostburg State University Frostburg, Maryland Sarah Gabua, DNP, RN Adjunct Professor Ferris State University Big Rapids, Michigan Kristine M. Gill, PhD., RN Associate Professor of Nursing, Emeritus The University of Akron Akron, Ohio Irma Lorraine Goodrich, ABD, MSN, BSN, RN Instructor of Nursing/Interim Director Eastern New Mexico University Portales, New Mexico Linda Pennington Grimsley, PhD Assistant Vice President for Academic Affairs & Professor of Nursing Albany State University Albany, Georgia Patricia Hall, MSN/Ed, RN Faculty University of South Florida College of Nursing Tampa, Florida Kim Clevenger, EdD, MSN, RN, BC Baccalaureate & RN-BSN Program Coordinator/ Associate Professor of Nursing Morehead State University Morehead, Kentucky Terri Hood-Brown Assistant Professor Ohio University Zanesville, Ohio Fredi de Yampert, PhD, RN Interim VP for Academic Affairs Nursing Department Chair Finlandia University Hancock, Michigan Sara K. Kaylor, Ed.D, RN, CNE Assistant Professor The University of Alabama Capstone College of Nursing Tuscaloosa, Alabama xi xii THANK YOU Ramona S. Kerner, DHEd, RN, CNOR Assistant Professor Southeastern Louisiana University School of Nursing Hammond, Louisiana Neal Rosenburg, PhD, COI, RN Dean and Associate Professor Nevada State College Henderson, Nevada Marilyn Meder, PhD, RN Assistant Professor Kutztown University Kutztown, Pennsylvania Polly Royal, DNP, RN Clinical Assistant Professor Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana Maria Olenick, PhD, FNP, RN Chair of Undergraduate Nursing Florida International University Nicole Wertheim College of Nursing and Health Sciences Miami, Florida Melody F. Sharp, DNP, RN Director, Post-Licensure & Accelerated BSN Associate Professor Jefferson College of Health Sciences Roanoke, Virginia Barbara Patterson, EdD, MS, RN, CNE Associate Dean, School of Nursing Southwestern Oklahoma State University Weatherford, Oklahoma Jessica Spellman, MSN, RN, CCRN The Ohio State University Associated Clinical Faculty Columbus, Ohio Judith Miller Peters, Ed.D, RNC Associate Professor of Nursing Loma Linda University School of Nursing Loma Linda, California Jennifer L. Taylor, PhD, RN Associate Professor Director of Undergraduate Programs Lindenwood University St. Charles, Missouri Jenny Radsma, PhD, RN Associate Professor University of Maine at Fort Kent Fort Kent, Maine Linda J. Thomas, PhD, MSN, RN, CNE RN-BSN Coordinator Murray State University Murray, Kentucky Patricia L. Reid, MSN, RN, CNS Director of Continuing Education The Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio Janet Weber, EdD, RN Director RN-BSN Program Southeast Missouri State University Cape Girardeau, Missouri Desma R. Reno, PhD(c), APRN, GCNS-BC Assistant Professor Southeast Missouri State University Cape Girardeau, Missouri Evelyn M. J. Yeaw, PhD, RN Professor Emerita The University of Rhode Island Kingston, Rhode Island Susan Rieck, PhD, RN Associate Professor & AssistantNegligence in Healthcare Presentation Discussion 3
Dean Northern Arizona University Flagstaff, Arizona Benson K. L. Yeung, MSN, RN Lecturer and Clinical Faculty California State University, School of Nursing Los Angeles, California Preface A dynamic healthcare environment requires growth and change in the nursing profession. Skills in communication and interpersonal relations are needed for nurses to be effective members of collaborative interdisciplinary healthcare teams. Critical thinking and creativity are necessary as nurses implement care with clients of diverse cultural and spiritual backgrounds in a variety of settings. Nurses must be prepared to provide care not only in hospital settings but also in community and residential settings, such as work sites, schools, faith-based communities, homeless shelters, and prisons. The nurse’s unique role demands a blend of nurturance, compassion, sensitivity, caring, empathy, commitment, courage, competence, and skill that comes from a broad knowledge base of the arts, humanities, biological and social sciences, and the discipline of nursing. Nurses need skills in teaching, collaborating, leading, managing, advocacy, political involvement, and applying theory, research, and evidence to practice. An understanding of holistic healing modalities and complementary therapies used in the care of patients and clients is becoming more essential. Knowledge of global health includes the nurse’s understanding of nursing and health care as practiced around the world and how health/disease conditions in other countries can affect the health status of citizens and residents of our own country. Quality and safety in health care are of primary concern to the profession. This book addresses content by which nurses build their repertoire of nursing knowledge. This content includes, but is not limited to, wellness, health promotion, and disease/injury prevention; holistic care; multiculturalism, global health; nursing history; technology and informatics; nursing theories and conceptual frameworks; nursing research; quality and safety; and professional empowerment and politics. Professional Nursing Practice: Concepts and Perspectives, 7th Edition, is intended as a text for registered nurses who are in transition or bridge programs to achieve a baccalaureate or higher degree in nursing. It may also be used in generic nursing programs or in transition or bridge programs for vocational nurses (LPNs or LVNs) to complete the professional nursing baccalaureate degree. This text addresses the areas of knowledge that professional nurses require to be effective in the changing healthcare environment. The organization of this text emphasizes the foundational knowledge related to professional nursing, including nursing history, nursing knowledge development, ethics, and legal aspects; the roles of professional nurses, including health promoter and care provider, learner and teacher, leader and manager, research consumer, advocate, and colleague and collaborator; the processes guiding nursing, including communication, change, and technology and informatics; nursing in a changing healthcare delivery system, including healthcare economics, holistic health care, global health, cultural and spiritual dimensions of client care, and nursing in a culture of violence; graduate education and advanced nursing practice; and nursing in the future. NEW TO THIS EDITION All chapters have been revised to reflect current professional nursing knowledge based on foundational knowledge: • A new chapter, Chapter 11, “The Nurse’s Role in Quality and Safety,” addresses quality and safety education for nurses (QSEN). Regulations, quality indicators, and benchmarking are discussed as they apply to professional nursing. • A new chapter, Chapter 19, “Global Health,” describes the goals of global health, demographic and epidemic shifts, communicable and noncommunicable diseases around the world, health systems models in the global environment, and nursing roles, responsibilities, and opportunities in global health. • New content on healthcare reform and implementation of the Affordable Care Act of 2010 as it has implications for nursing has been added to this edition. • Negligence in Healthcare Presentation Discussion 3
New content on nursing knowledge development and evidence-based practice has been added. • Chapter summaries are now presented as a bulleted list of chapter highlights to facilitate student preparation for exams. Hallmark Features The seventh edition of Professional Nursing Practice: Concepts and Perspectives retains several of the features that have been well received by faculty and students who have used previous editions: • All new to this edition, Research Currents (formerly called Evidence for Practice) boxes that describe quantitative and qualitative research studies relevant to chapter content and relate them to clinical or professional practice. xiii xiv PREFACE • Critical Thinking Exercises that require readers to apply concepts from chapters to exemplar situations. • Reflect On . . . sections that ask the reader to contemplate her or his own practice and beliefs about professional nursing in relation to the chapter content. • Interviews of practicing nurses, which can be found in two chapters: Chapter 19, “Providing Care in the Home and Community,” and Chapter 24, “Advanced Nursing Education and Practice.” The profiles include information about why these practitioners chose their specific practice areas, what qualities they think are necessary to be a nurse in that area, what their practice entails, and what encouragement they would offer a nurse considering practice in this area. The profiles provide useful first-person perspectives for readers. • InfoQuest, which directs students to Internet-based information resources related to chapter content. Organization This edition is organized into five units, with an introductory chapter preceding the first unit. Units and chapters can be used independently or in any sequence. Some nursing programs use this text for first-semester nursing students in a professional socialization course. Other nursing programs use the text at the end of their nursing program in a professional transition course. And yet other programs use the text as a primary text in one course and a secondary text in other professional role courses. • Chapter 1, “Beginning the Journey,” was created to assist registered nurses as they return to school. It provides information regarding factors influencing nurses’ return to school for baccalaureate and higher degrees and overcoming barriers that may interfere with student success. New content in this chapter includes learning with technology and evaluating Internet sites. • Unit I, “Foundations of Professional Nursing Practice,” focuses on professionalism, including socialization, and historical, legal, ethical, and knowledge development of nursing. • Unit II, “Professional Nursing Roles,” includes information on the professional roles of health promoter and care provider, learner and teacher, leader and manager, research consumer, advocate, and colleague and collaborator. It also addresses quality and safety in providing health care. • Unit III, “Processes Guiding Professional Practice,” focuses on communicating effectively, managing change, and using technology and informatics. • Unit IV, “Professional Nursing in a Changing Health Care Environment,” includes chapters devoted to healthcare economics, providing care in the home and community, global health, holistic health care, nursing in a culturally diverse world, nursing in a spiritually diverse world, and nursing in a culture of violence. • Unit V, “Into the Future,” looks at the nurse’s professional development and the future of nursing. It includes chapters on advanced nursing education and practice and concludes with visions for the future of nursing and health care. We hope this book helps learners appreciate the proud heritage of professional nursing, understand what is meant by professional, view nursing as a profession, and develop knowledge and abilities that will contribute to the advancement of the profession. In addition, we hope the knowledge gained will help nurses provide quality care in a constantly changing healthcare environment. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We extend our sincere thanks to the many talented and committed people who assisted in the birthing of this text: • Barbara Kozier and Glenora Erb, without whom this text would never have been conceived. Every day that we write, we think of them with fondness and respect. • The reviewers who provided many discerning comments and suggestions that expanded our thinking and writing Negligence in Healthcare Presentation Discussion 3