Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Discussion


Baruteau and fellow researchers assert that sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is one of the diseases that cause high neonatal infant mortality in developing countries. The researchers argue that there is no warning or any obvious reason for the deaths which makes the disease quite dangerous and unpredictable. According to Baruteau, SIDS is characterized by a triple risk threat which is the convergence of three risks factors that occur during an infant’s developmental period. The researchers conclude that exogenous stressors combine with arrhythmia syndrome to cause cardiomyopathies.

In this study, Spinelli and fellow researchers assert that while SIDS is a leading cause in children, its mechanisms largely remain unclear. This research analyses the various theories used to explain the cause of the disease. However, Spinelli and team concurs that triple risk model remains the most developed model for explaining SIDS and how it causes death in infants. The authors assert that the model has evolved with time to encompass other factors that were not known earlier. However, the major cause of SIDS is believed to multifactorial-meaning a combination of high risk factors that occur during the infancy stage.

In this article, Haynes and fellow team of researchers assert that heterogeneous disorders during infancy cause sudden death in children in an explained way. This research cites its previous reports where 40% of SIDS deaths were believed to be associated with serotonin abnormalities found in the brainstem. In this research, Haynes and team found that an alteration in serum 5-HT levels was a leading cause of SIDS. However, the researchers also acknowledged that there are other factors that cause the disease. This is to say that there are multiple factors that many cause the condition.

Like other studies above, the work by Carlin and moon also assert that the exact cause of SIDS is not known but is multifactorial. However, the duo reveal in their research that underlying biological conditions may expose children to SIDS. The authors give example of impairment in hypoxia and hypercarbia as examples of problems that create high risk factor for SIDS. Other risk factors mentioned by the authors are side sleeping and bed sharing, and soft bedding.

In this study, Duncan investigates the cause of SIDS in infants. He asserts that today’s definition of SIDS is sudden deaths of seemingly healthy infants aged below 1 years. Duncan observes that most SIDS deaths are associated with sleep period where most deaths occur during sleep. Other deaths in infants occur during the transition between sleep and when infants wake up. According to Duncan, these deaths during sleep or transition to waking up led to names such as crib or cot deaths. Like in other studies, Duncan in in research found that the exact cause of death in SIDS still remain unknown but is caused by multiple factors.


  • Baruteau, A. E., Tester, D. J., Kapplinger, J. D., Ackerman, M. J., & Behr, E. R. (2017). Sudden infant death syndrome and inherited cardiac conditions. Nature Reviews Cardiology, 14(12), 715-726.
  • Carlin, R. F., & Moon, R. Y. (2017). Risk factors, protective factors, and current recommendations to reduce sudden infant death syndrome: a review. JAMA pediatrics, 171(2), 175-180
  • Duncan, J. R., & Byard, R. W. (2018). Sudden infant death syndrome: an overview.
  • Haynes, R. L., Frelinger, A. L., Giles, E. K., Goldstein, R. D., Tran, H., Kozakewich, H. P., … & Michelson, A. D. (2017). High serum serotonin in sudden infant death syndrome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(29), 7695-7700.
  • Spinelli, J., Collins‐Praino, L., Van Den Heuvel, C., & Byard, R. W. (2017). Evolution and significance of the triple risk model in sudden infant death syndrome. Journal of paediatrics and child health, 53(2), 112-115