NRS 425 Health Promotion and Functional Health Pattern
In this NRS-425 Health Promotion and Population Health Course, the primary focus is on the community as the patient, taking into account varying cultures, spiritual values, geographic norms, and economic conditions. The critical aspects examined in this course encompass social determinants of health, including social, legal, and political variables impacting individual, community, and population health across the life span. Students use epidemiological data, functional health pattern assessments, and nursing theories to plan and intervene in areas of health promotion and disease prevention across the life span.
Example Functional Health Patterns Community Assessment Presentation Notes
Hello everyone, and welcome to today’s presentation. The presentation will focus on assessing Columbus’ community health patterns. Columbus is one of the largest cities in Georgia. It is the third-largest city based on population density. It is a consolidated city-county located on the west-central border of Georgia. We will discuss the community in detail and its boundaries. An extensive community physical assessment will be addressed, including values, beliefs, health and health perception, nutrition, and environment. The social determinants of health for the community will also be explored. Finally, an interview with a community representative and the opportunities for health promotion in the community will be discussed.
Community Description (Geography and Geopolitical Factors)
The community of interest in this assessment is Columbus City in Georgia. It is the second-largest city in Georgia, with a large metropolitan area. The city is located on the west-central border of Georgia, directly along the Chattahoochee River. Additionally, the city’s metropolitan area is joined with the other cities in Alabama, such as Opelika and Auburn. Columbus was merged in 1970 as the official county seat for Muscogee County.
Community Boundaries (People, Ethnic, Financial, and Educational Levels)
Columbus is one of Georgia’s most densely populated cities, with approximately 979 people per square mile. According to the United States Census Bureau (2021), Columbus’s estimated population as of July 2021 was 205,617. More than 50 % of the residents are females. The city is diverse and houses people from different races. The races include white, Hispanic, Asian, black, American Indian and Native Hawaiian.
The majority of the people are white. The census report also included that the estimated household income in the city was $47,008. Additionally, the cost of living in Columbus is $86.8 per day, which is lower than the US average of $100 per day, thus being one of the most affordable cities in Georgia. The population is also educated, with almost 100% attaining a high school education. 61.6% of the population have a post-high school education, meaning bachelor’s, associate and college degrees.
Values and Belief Patterns
Columbus is a city that houses a community that highly regards community values such as peace, unity, and freedom. The family unit is also cherished, with approximately 47% of the adult residents being married. There are different religious beliefs in Columbus. Christianity is the leading religion, with approximately 59% of the residents being Christians from different denominations. However, about 37.9% of the residents are not ascribed to any religion. Community members participate in community programs and regularly meet and interact in community social institutions such as community libraries, schools, and religious centers.
Culture, Health Patterns and Health Management
The culture of a community significantly affects health patterns and health management. Cultural importance in Columbus is felt to a great extent since cultural days and events are observed. The city has various cultural centers where culture is expressed in terms of art. Ballet and Broadway are other cultural icons in the city. Cultural heritage and communism and cultural heritage are also valued. The health of the community and its members is regarded highly. Additionally, from the community reviews, the community views itself as a healthy community. There are adequate health management institutions since 10% of the common industries are healthcare-related.
Despite the scarcity of data and statistics concerning Columbus City, the county and state statistics show relatively good nutrition. Healthy foods are available and affordable for people of all social classes. However, there is much junk and fast food served in local canteens and food trucks. Most of these fast foods are unhealthy. Safe water is available for consumption for all households and businesses. The statistics for obesity and diabetes are, however, still high. Approximately 12% of children and 30% of adults are obese. More so, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that approximately 12% of the total population in the city has diabetes.
For adults, children, and youths from inside and outside the city, the recreational centers include parks, community centers, play fields, and swimming pools. The availability, accessibility, and affordability of these centers encourage community members to engage in physical activity and exercise. There are also fitness programs. More than half of the households in Columbus have access to a computer, internet, and television, where the average television watching hours is approximately three hours. Road accidents are a significant form of injury in the city since road transport is the primary mode of transport (Ciy-data.com, n.d.). Therefore, fractures and brain and spinal injuries are common.
Self-perception and Self-concept
Getting the community’s self-perception and self-concept is essential in understanding community identity (Cater & Bruene, 2019). Various sources of pride exist that enhance the self-perception and self-concept of residents in Columbus. These factors include a low cost of living, which enables the residents of different social classes to afford and access most of the services in the city. The tourist attraction sites and parks act as areas of social interaction and meetings, thus enhancing unity and social cohesion. Most city residents are, on average, young, mostly between 18 and 65 years old. Different websites feature the city’s vital information, data, and statistics.
Stress and Coping with Stress
Stress is a significant factor influencing mental health and wellness in the community. The stress levels in Columbus are significantly high. There are various significant causes of stress in the city. Some of the most common causes of Stress include the unemployment rate, which is slightly below the state average, and crime rates.
For instance, sex offenders living in the city as of January 2023 were recorded at 738, with a ratio of offender: population at 252:1. The issue causes vulnerable populations to live in fear, including the victims living in Stress Locality. However, various attempts exist to cope with Stress, including the availability of counseling centers and therapists in the city. Columbus is also one of the cities with many male therapists in the state (City-Data.com, n.d.).
Sexuality and Reproductive Health
Like other communities in Georgia and the US, the community mainly conforms to individualism. Thus, low social interactions exist. Numerous sexual and reproductive health programs exist, facilitated by non-governmental organizations, faith-based organizations, and community organizations. These programs are population-specific, mainly offering services to vulnerable populations. The programs teach domestic violence, teen pregnancy, HIV, safe childcare, and motherhood. However, abortion and miscarriages are not well recorded, thus unavailability of a definite record. Maternal and childcare health services are free, promoting safe maternal and child care.
Environmental Health Concerns
There are various environmental health concerns in the city. Columbus is one of the cities that have recently recorded the highest fecal coliform contamination in the county (City-data.com, n.d.). The city also has sewers that flow into the Chattahoochee River. These two environmental health concerns can pose a considerable health risk in the community through cholera outbreaks. There are also noisy neighborhoods present, which is an environmental health concern.
The air quality in the city does not meet the annual WHO requirements, thus posing a health risk to the community. Air pollutants may cause health risks, including respiratory diseases. Households were observed to have clean and well-maintained toilets and bathrooms. General hygiene is maintained by having hand-washing points throughout the city.
Social Interactions and Common Goals in the Community
Social interaction is a very vital aspect of the community. Social interactions promote unity and cohesion and enhance community participation in various community initiatives. The rate of social interaction in Columbus is generally low, mainly due to the individualism in the community. However, community members interact once in a while in community social institutions such as the Chattahoochee Library, schools, recreation facilities, and religious institutions.
Additionally, Columbus is a metropolitan area; thus, various government institutions exist where people can interact. Some of the common goals in the community are increasing social cohesion and unity, reducing the crime rate challenge, and enhancing collective participation in health initiatives.
Barriers and Challenges in the Community
There are various barriers and challenges in Columbus City. Some of these challenges are interdependent. One of the significant challenges is high unemployment rates, especially among youths aged 25. The high population majorly causes the unemployment challenge. Unemployment rates in this community are slightly above the state rates. Unemployment is a major cause of crimes, which is also a significant challenge. Other challenges include drug abuse, traffic road accidents, and environmental barriers such as sewer overflows.
Social Determinants of Health
According to Peretz et al. (2020), social determinants of health in a community impact community members’ decisions on health, their lifestyle, and their general conduct. SDO is the conditions in which individuals in a community are born, brought up, and age. The assessment’s identified social determinants of health included economic stability, education access, and quality. The cost of living is relatively low compared to the state’s average. As a metropolitan city, there is high production and cash flow. The education levels are high, with 61.6% percent of the total population attaining post-high school education and above 80% having attained high school education.
The other social determinants of health identified in the community include healthcare access and quality, neighborhood and built environment, and social and community concepts. Healthcare facilities are available across the city regarding healthcare access and quality. These facilities are well endowed with care providers from different specializations. There is a high crime rate and security issues, mainly due to poverty and unemployment. The average commuting time is 19 minutes, showing good transport infrastructure (City-Data.com, n.d.). Additionally, despite exhibiting an individualistic society, the community has a certain degree of social cohesion and interaction.
Community Assessment Summary
Conducting the community assessment was essential and needed to understand the community in detail. Some of the community needs identified in the assessment include addressing environmental health concerns impacting its health, such as sewer overflows. Among the barriers to community health are drug abuse and crime rates. Understanding various concepts of the community, including their stress levels, coping with Stress, and self-perception, helped me understand the community’s view of health and their challenges. Additionally, the assessment confirmed the existing data and statistics through observation and actual community engagement.
Healthcare providers play a significant role in providing healthcare information. The interview with Mr. Smith, a director of nursing in a long-term care facility, was crucial in understanding health promotion. Mr. Smith has worked as a nurse for the last 21 years and has been at the facility for 13 years. His ambition is to transform nursing care towards patients with chronic illnesses, primarily geriatric patients, by offering decent care and enhancing patient satisfaction.
Mr. Smith participates in health promotion programs in the community through partnerships with the government, healthcare providers, and other organizations. He believes that health promotion is one of the best and most cost-effective approaches to care since it refocuses health from curative to preventive health. He maintains that nurses play a significant role in health promotion.
According to Mr. Smith, the community’s health is slightly above average. He mentioned that the score is due to the community’s various health risks and the different environmental health concerns evident in the community. He cited the lack of insurance as one of the primary barriers to healthcare, especially for vulnerable populations and populations facing health disparities.
He also identified community health issues, including obesity, diabetes, and drug abuse. As a care provider, he aims to enhance decent care and patient satisfaction for all community members while advocating for health focus to shift to preventive health. Additionally, he desires to see the community free of drug abuse and embracing a healthy lifestyle.
Opportunities for Health Promotion
The health assessment and the community representative interview identified different health promotion opportunities. The health promotion opportunities were identified from the environmental health concerns, community challenges, and barriers. One of the most profound community health issues is drug and substance abuse. Research shows that drug abuse is manageable through community education, sensitization, and the use of available community resources (Volkow et al., 2019).
Similarly, this challenge offers a perfect health promotion activity that healthcare providers can focus on going forward. Additionally, the community lacks enough drug abuse programs and rehabilitation centers. Thus, the issue is a ready opportunity for health promotion. Other opportunities for health promotion include diabetes prevention and management, following high numbers of diabetes patients in the city, and mental health and wellness following stress levels and community stressors present.
The best health promotion opportunity is diabetes prevention and management. The problem can be controlled at the community level due to the available social institutions and groups where health promotion can be carried out. These include healthcare facilities, organizations, churches, and schools. Health promotion interventions potentially reduce the health concerns and challenges in the community, thus improving the overall health in Muscogee-Georgia.
Carter, M. J., & Bruene, S. (2019). Examining the relationship between self-perceptions of person, role, and social identity change and self-concept clarity. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 38(4), 425-451. https://doi.org/10.1177/0276236618792267
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), (2022). Deaths and Mortality. National Center for Health Statistics. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/deaths.htm
City-Data.com. (n.d.). Columbus, Georgia. http://www.city-data.com/city/Columbus-Georgia.html
Peretz, P. J., Islam, N., & Matiz, L. A. (2020). Community health workers and Covid-19—addressing social determinants of health in times of crisis and beyond. New England Journal of Medicine, 383(19), e108. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp2022641
United States Census Bureau. (2021). City and Town Population Totals 2020-2021. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/data/tables/time-series/demo/popest/2020s-total-cities-and-towns.html
Volkow, N. D., Jones, E. B., Einstein, E. B., & Wargo, E. M. (2019). Prevention and treatment of opioid misuse and addiction: a review. JAMA psychiatry, 76(2), 208-216. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.3126