Cardiovascular and Cardiopulmonary Pathophysiologic Process

Cardiovascular and Cardiopulmonary Pathophysiologic Process

Cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary pathophysiologic process

Scenario 3: 11-year-old boy complains of wheezing and difficulty “getting enough air.” Notices it more when he is playing baseball and symptoms improve when exercise activity stops.

He says that the symptoms are getting worse and the symptoms are even occurring at rest. Mother says the child is allergic to cat dander and his next-door neighbor in their apartment building recently began sheltering cats for the local humane society. Auscultation demonstrates wheezes on forced expiration throughout all lung fields. ( must be included in paper)

Cardiovascular and Cardiopulmonary Pathophysiologic Process Assignment (1- to 2-page case study analysis)

In your Case Study Analysis related to the scenario provided, explain the following

The cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary pathophysiologic processes that result in the patient presenting these symptoms.

Any racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning.

How these processes interact to affect the patient.

Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The sample paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at All papers submitted must use this formatting.


You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized.

Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.

Use a standard 10 to 12-point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.

Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.

The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting a hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print it out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.

Pathophysiologic Process of Cardiovascular Diseases Example

Understanding the pathophysiologic process of diseases is a critical component of being a nursing practitioner. It provides a better understanding of why symptoms occur in a certain manner, consequently providing a better understanding of how diseases progress. This constitutes a critical part of initiating early and effective treatment options to provide quality, safe and appropriate care. This paper aims to describe the pathophysiologic process behind cough and shortness of breath in a patient with COPD, highlighting any racial/ ethical factors that may be coming into play and understanding the interrelationship between these disease processes, resulting in the outcome observed.

Pathophysiologic Processes

The link between COPD and cardiovascular pathophysiologic processes primarily depends on hyperinflation and hypoxemia, among other processes. Hyperinflation is primarily a result of an increase in the residual gas in the alveoli after the process of breathing out. This hyperinflation can either be static or dynamic. Static entails the destruction of the lung parenchyma, resulting in the loss of the elastic recoil of the lung. The dynamic phase occurs on inhalation before full exhalation, consequently resulting in the retention of air molecules. This whole process greatly disrupts the muscles involved in respiration, resulting in the observed shortness of breath (McCance & Huether, 2019). Limitations in the airflow due to hyperinflation have been attributed to elevated pressures, right ventricular dysfunction, impaired left ventricular filling, and impaired cardiac output.

COPD results in excess mucus production by the lungs. The consequent impairment in the mucus-clearing mechanisms, in conjunction with the impairment of the ciliary structure, leads to the cough as a mechanism of clearing out the excess mucus (Radovanovic et al., 2018). The green sputum is due to an acute bacterial infection, most likely pneumonia. Elevated levels of myeloperoxidase enzyme during acute infections are the leading cause of the green color in the sputum. The fever is mostly a result of the upward surge of the set point of the thermoregulatory center as a result of cytokines (Santos et al., 2019). This is particularly common in infections and is believed to boost the immune system’s functioning while hindering the pathogen’s proliferation.

Cardiovascular and Cardiopulmonary Interaction

It is a common occurrence to experience cardiovascular complications and COPD coexisting. As highlighted earlier, the critical pathophysiological links between these two systems are lung hyperinflation, systemic inflammation, and exacerbations associated with COPD. This cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary interaction dramatically increases mortality rates and significantly affects the overall quality of life due to prolonged episodes of shortness of breath and exercise intolerance (Cheyne et al., 2020). Prolonged and frequent hospitalization as a result of COPD exacerbations dramatically reduces the patient’s productivity and increases the overall cost of healthcare.

Racial/Ethical Variables

Race is a crucial determinant in occupation types since most occupations are racially patterned (Wolf et al., 2020). In most instances, jobs, where there is exposure to smoke, dust, and other hazardous chemicals, tend to be reserved for certain racial groups. These factors greatly influence the disease process, consequently playing a significant role in the overall health of the individuals. Racially determined factors such as poverty and level of education determine an individual’s lifestyle, including physical exercise and diet. These are key to the overall physiologic functioning of an individual. These factors also influence health-seeking behaviors, which also affect normal physiologic functioning.


The cardiopulmonary and cardiovascular systems are greatly affected by conditions affecting either of these systems, with symptoms manifesting in relation to the pathophysiologic processes involved. Understanding these processes is critical to offering quality care to patients. Factors such as race and ethnicity should be taken into consideration as they greatly impact the normal physiologic functioning of the body and, consequently, the disease process.


Cheyne, W. S., Harper, M. I., Gelinas, J. C., Sasso, J. P., & Eves, N. D. (2020). Mechanical cardiopulmonary interactions during exercise in health and disease. Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md.: 1985), 128(5), 1271–1279.

McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

Radovanovic, D., Pecchiari, M., Pirracchio, F., Zilianti, C., D’Angelo, E., & Santus, P. (2018). Plethysmographic Loops: A Window on the Lung Pathophysiology of COPD Patients. Frontiers in Physiology, 9, 484.

Santos, C., Oliveira, R. C., Serra, P., Baptista, J. P., Sousa, E., Casanova, P., Pimentel, J., & Carvalho, L. (2019). Pathophysiology of acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia – Clinical and morphological spectra. Pathophysiology: The Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology, 26(3-4), 213–217.

Wolf, S. T., Jablonski, N. G., & Kenney, W. L. (2020). Examining “race” in physiology. American journal of physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 319(6), H1409–H1413.

Also Read: NURS 6501 Module 1 Assignment: Case Study Analysis