BHA FPX 4112 Assessment Discussions

BHA FPX 4112 Assessment 1 Instructions: Health Production Function

Write a 2-4-page executive summary recommending resource investment in a program based on its potential to deliver positive health and economic outcomes.

As a health care professional, you must have a foundational, high-level understanding of health care economics:

One part of this foundation comes from understanding:

The basic laws of economics as they apply to the health care industry.

How the health care system creates unique economic challenges and burdens on all stakeholders.

Another part of this foundation comes from understanding:

The history and trends in health care economics around such topics as the role of the government and government programs such as Medicare and Medicaid.

Trends in patient payments.

The resulting changes in health care expenditures, as well as areas for improvement in the health care system (Feldstein, 2012).

Another key is understanding the concepts and processes involved in the production of health care: Multiple inputs influence health and wellness.

Medical care is only one input, although a significant one.

The health production function and decision rules for allocating health care resources is a key component of the first assessment in this course. For this assessment, think about the ways in which health production efficiency, both technical and economical, can help drive decisions on the allocation of resources (inputs) to drive improved patient health and results (outcomes) (Feldstein, 2012).

Reference

Feldstein, P. J. (2012). Health care economics (7th ed.). Clifton Park, NY: Delmar.

Demonstration of Proficiency

By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the course competencies through the following assessment scoring guide criteria:

Competency 1: Analyze historical perspectives and current trends in the health care industry.

Describe the current state of a health care organization with regards to alignments to historical health care industry trends. Explain how a health care organization needs to change to better align itself with current trends in the health care industry.

Competency 3: Analyze the evolving economic reimbursement trends, methods, and technology.

Analyze two current programs in a health care setting with regards to the inputs required to operate and its outputs with regards to health outcome rates and patients served.

Competency 4: Analyze how economic and stakeholder influences affect operational planning and decision making.

Propose whether to reallocate, maintain, or increase funding for current programs based upon available resources and projects outputs. Explain how opinions and agendas of stakeholders influence decisions related to the funding of programs in a health care setting. BHA FPX 4112 Assessment Discussions

Competency 5: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and respectful of the diversity, dignity, and integrity of others and is

consistent with expectations for health care professionals.

Write following APA style for in-text citation, quotes, and references.

Write clearly and logically, with correct use of spelling, grammar, punctuation, and mechanics.

Professional Context

The ability to research, examine, and determine the most efficient ways to allocate resources in order to produce to best health outcomes is a key competency for health care economic professionals. In the complex field of health care, there will always be multiple ways and multiple programs in which an organization can invest resources. It is the health care economics professional’s responsibility to examine the cost of the inputs in comparison to the historic or projected output of health and then make recommendations regarding investment.

Looking at investment is not always entirely about the amount of positive outputs—technical efficiency, economic efficiency, and stakeholder priorities will all also play a part (Feldstein, 2012). Being able to not only understand and crunch the numbers, but also navigate these other considerations, is vital in becoming an effective health care economics professional.

Scenario

You are a health care economics professional with specific expertise in using a health production function to allocate resources. A member of the Board of Directors has asked you to prepare an executive summary that will help the board understand the current practices of the organization and where the organization should align itself in light of current and emerging trends. Additionally, you have been asked to analyze the inputs and outputs of two current programs in the organization in order to make allocation recommendations about how to best utilize the available resources to achieve the best possible outputs for the programs.

BHA FPX 4112 Assessment Discussions Instructions

This assessment has three main parts:

The first part is your examination of the organization’s current practices and alignments with historical health care trends, as well as how the organization needs to change to align itself with current and emerging

  1. The second part is your analysis of two existing programs that could be candidates for further investment (Note: You may use two program examples from your textbook, your own research, or your own organization as the context for your analysis and this executive ).
  2. The third part is your proposal on how to allocate resources for the two programs, as well as a brief explanation of how the views of the stakeholders influenced your decision making

If you have not already, it may be helpful to complete the formative activity to check your understanding of the economic concepts relevant to this assessment.

Economic Elements in Health Care | Transcript.

Consult the scoring guide to make sure you are meeting the communication criteria and achieving your desired rubric level.

Part I: Current State of Organization and Potential Changes to Align with Trends

Describe the current state of a health care organization with regards to alignments to historical health care industry trends. (Competency 1)

For this, use either an organization that you currently or previously had worked for, have researched as an organization you would like to work for in the future, or one that was present in the textbook or other research you conducted.

Explain how a health care organization needs to change to better align itself with current trends in the health care industry. (Competency 1)

Continue using the organization that you described to meet the first scoring guide criteria.

Part II: Analysis of Current Programs

Analyze two current programs in a health care setting with regards to the inputs required to operate and its outputs with regards to health outcome rates and patients served. (Competency 3)

As noted in the instructions above, you may use program examples from your textbook, your own research, or your own organization. Be sure you choose examples for which you can report the inputs, outputs, and approximate patients served.

Part III: Resource Allocation and Stakeholder Reflections

Propose whether to reallocate, maintain, or increase funding for current programs based upon available resources and projects outputs. (Competency 4)

Use the two programs you analyzed in Part II. It will be helpful to cite evidence (literature, your textbook, or current health improvement initiatives [like those being pursued via your state’s Department of Health] to help support your proposals.

Explain how opinions and agendas of stakeholders influence decisions related to the funding of programs in a health care setting. (Competency 4) Make explicit reference to the stakeholders and their statements in the Scenario section for this assessment, or to specific examples from your current or former career experiences.

BHA FPX 4112 Assessment Discussions – Assessment 1: Health Production Function Sample Solution

Current state of the organization and potential changes that align with trends

University of Pittsburgh Medical Centre (UPMC) is a non-profit organization that provides community healthcare to the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,  local community. For more than a decade, the institution has been providing a range of healthcare services for the Pittsburgh community. The current state of UPMC with regards to its alignment with the historical trends in the healthcare industry concerns its potential to improve poor customer satisfaction ratings and its currently outdated equipment. Patients are continually expecting more out of their hospital visits. Therefore, health institutions must pay attention to every detail that influences customer satisfaction, from how they are greeted at the main entrance to the length of waiting time at the emergency room and how the service providers interact with them (Gooch, 2019).

According to O’Neill & Cosentino (2020), reduced satisfaction ratings can contribute to reduced insurance reimbursement claims from the health insurance schemes, leading to poor hospital reputations and reduced revenue. Consequently, health organizations need to update their services and align themselves to the current trends in the healthcare industry. As per Rapport et al. (2019), this adaptability should be in all the critical areas of healthcare services, including reimbursement regulations, workflow adjustments, tele-pharmacy, telemedicine, and any other areas that can improve patient satisfaction and organizational profitability.

In this regard, Vogenberg and Santilli (2018) argued that healthcare leaders must always be prepared for change and have the skills for implementing beneficial changes that come with either advancement in healthcare technology or general industry development. By being on the lookout for change, healthcare leaders secure the health and well-being of patients and the general welfare of employees. Health organizations must therefore be ready for any change that comes by. The other recommendation given by O’Neill & Cosentino (2020) is that healthcare leaders must pay attention to changes in patient behavior and respond to them accordingly. Healthcare leaders must timely, transparently communicate with both patients and employees to ensure efficient delivery of satisfactory services. Lastly, the leaders must be engaged, proactive, and committed to any future changes within the healthcare industry.

Current Programs

UPMC department of dialysis center contributes a large percentage of minority communities in Pittsburgh, who can hardly afford good healthcare. The community members experience various health problems including chronic diseases such as obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. UPMC formed the Diabetes Prevention Support Center University of Pittsburgh, whose main objective is to develop strategies for reducing and managing diabetes within the community. Apart from diagnosing and educating community members, the program provides dialysis treatment to both insured and non-insured members of the community.

For the program to effectively operate, some of the inputs required include nurses, physicians, funding to purchase dialysis equipment. Utilizing these outputs will yield various outputs including improved community awareness about diabetes, including the importance of physical exercise and healthy eating. The Diabetes Prevention Support Center University of Pittsburgh has currently impacted hundreds of residences in Pittsburgh.

The second program run by UPMC is the UPMC Men’s Healthcare, which is dedicated to the diagnosis and treatment of conditions affecting men’s reproductive health. The program specializes in absent or delayed ejaculation, lower testosterone, male infertility, premature ejaculation, and pyronine’s disease. The program encourages men to live a healthy sexual life through regular sexual health check-ups, a healthy diet, and physical activity. For the program to be successful, the facility requires various inputs such as funding for equipment, educational resources, and staffing. Many men have benefited from the program (Trent, 2021).

Resource Allocation and Reflection

I would propose an increase in funding for the Diabetes Prevention Support Centre based on Pittsburgh’s projected prevalence rate of diabetes. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2019), there was a slight decrease in diabetes prevalence rate from 10.9% in 2018 to 10.2% in 2019. However, as per the same reports, this decrease is still relatively higher than the benchmark average of 10.1%, meaning that more effort is still needed in the fight against diabetes within Pittsburgh.

Furthermore, as per the CDC (2020), diabetes is currently ranked the sixth leading cause of death in the United States, contributing to an average of 225 deaths yearly. As such, there must be a concerted effort by healthcare institutions towards reducing the prevalence of diabetes, especially among low-income earners. This can be achieved by increasing the funding directed towards the Diabetes Prevention Support Centre University of Pittsburgh program.

Regarding UPMC Men’s Healthcare program, I propose that the current funding levels should be maintained but with a contingency plan for any future adjustments that may be needed. Currently, reproductive health conditions are among the leading causes of death in the United States De Jonge and Barratt (2019), making it an important area of focus and investment by healthcare organizations. Moreover, because stakeholders in the UPMC Men’s Healthcare program are focused on positive outcomes, they should maintain the program’s funding to yield consistent results. Otherwise, they should consider reallocating the funds to other healthcare programs that can show reasonable results.

BHA FPX 4112 Assessment Discussions References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Behavioural Risk Factor Surveillance System (2019). Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Prevalence Data (2011 to present). Accessed 17th January 2022 from https://chronicdata.cdc.gov/Behavioral-Risk-Factors/Behavioral-Risk-Factor-Surveillance-System-BRFSS-P/dttw-5yxu

CDC. (2020). National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2020. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/library/features/diabetes-statreport.

De Jonge, C., & Barratt, C. L. (2019). The present crisis in male reproductive health: an urgent need for a political, social, and research roadmap. Andrology, 7(6), 762-768. https://doi.org/10.1111/andr.12673

Gooch, K. (2019). Healthcare Leaders Share Daily Habits to Improve Patient Experience. Beckers Review. Retrieved from https://www.beckershospitalreview.com/hospitalmanagement-administration/14-healthcare-leaders-share-tips-for-improving-the-patientexperience.

O’Neill, M., & Cosentino, D. (2020). Healthcare Industry Trends of 2020. ECG. Retrieved from https://www.ecgmc.com/thought-leadership/blog/2020-healthcare-industry-trends

Rapport, F., Hibbert, P., Baysari, M., Long, J. C., Seah, R., Zheng, W. Y., Jones, C., Preece, K., & Braithwaite, J. (2019). What Do Patients Really Want? An in-depth Examination of Patient Experience in Four Australian Hospitals. BMC Health Services Research, 19(1), 38. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-3881-z

Trent, C. (2021). Enhancing Quality Primary & Specialty Care: Improving The Health Care Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer (LGBTQ+) Patients at UPMC Community Medicine, Inc (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh). http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/id/eprint/40536

Vogenberg, F. R., & Santilli, J. (2018). Healthcare Trends for 2018. American Health & Drug Benefits, 11(1), 48–54.

BHA FPX 4112 Assessment 2 Instructions: The Supply and Demand of Health Care

Write 7-9 pages that compare different models of supply and demand, as well as analyze how legislation and reimbursement methods impact supply and demand for health care.

As we take a closer look at the demand side of economics, we will consider how need versus demand is different and how this impacts planning and policy in the health care environment. Demand is typically initiated by the patient; however, provider involvement significantly impacts demand. Since the patient is dependent on the provider for expertise and medical opinion, there is a risk that demand will be increased. This is unique to the health care industry since consumers are not typically as dependent on the supplier of a service in other industries when making a purchase.

Another important driver of demand is the insurance company. Patients initiate the health care service but are not responsible to pay the bill—and this has the potential to skew the demand curve. This is one of the ideas behind high-deductible health care and the effort to control the consumption of services by making the patient responsible for a higher percentage of the overall bill. Finally, you will be offered an opportunity to think about the implications of free medical care and how that may impact the demand for health care services.

Like the demand curve, the health care field presents unique and interesting challenges to the supply of health care. You will be introduced to the concept of economic efficiency and the impact of inefficiencies on cost. The production function will be further explored, which is the relationship between the output of a product or service compared to the resources used to produce it (Feldstein, 2012). Competition, market structure, market performance, and public policies as they relate to the supply of health care services will be discussed as well.

The evolution of health care insurance has impact aspects health care economics such as price competition, medical loss ratios, and risk. As you prepare to complete the assessment consider the role that copays, coinsurance, and deductibles play on the demand curve and reflect on your opinions related to the effectiveness of high-deductible health plans in controlling the demand of health care services.

Reference

Feldstein, P. J. (2012). Health care economics (7th ed.). Clifton Park, NY: Delmar.

Demonstration of Proficiency

By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the course competencies through the following assessment scoring guide criteria:

Competency 1: Analyze historical perspectives and current trends in the health care industry. BHA FPX 4112 Assessment Discussions

Explain current legislative trends that influence the supply and demand of health care. Competency 2: Assess the United States health care system from an economic perspective.

Compare and contrast the demand of health care services with the demand of an automobile.

Compare and contrast the supply of health care services with the supply of an automobile. Competency 3: Analyze the evolving economic reimbursement trends, methods, and technology.

Analyze reimbursement methods that influence the supply and demand of health care services.

Competency 5: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and respectful of the diversity, dignity, and integrity of others and is consistent with expectations for health care professionals.

Write following APA style for in-text citation, quotes, and references.

Write clearly and logically, with correct use of spelling, grammar, punctuation, and mechanics. BHA FPX 4112 Assessment 2 Instructions: The Supply and Demand of Health Care

Context

The basic economic laws of supply and demand do not work the same way in the health care industry as they do in other industries. A few of the contributing issues include: demand cannot be restricted to only those with an ability to pay since health care is considered a basic human right (need versus demand), demand is increased due to a third party (insurance or government) that pays for the service, and our supply is limited based on a highly skilled human resource variable (physicians).

Instructions

In this assessment, you will consider these contributing issues and others that you identify in your research as they relate to the free market. Compare and contrast the laws of supply and demand of the health care industry with that of the automobile industry and explain how the economic structure of the health care industry is different from other industries. Reviewing the following media pieces may help to solidify your understanding of the economic concepts and industries relevant to this assessment.

Health Care Supply and Demand | Transcript. Supply, Demand, & Reimbursement | Transcript.

Also, make sure to consult the scoring guide to make sure you are meeting the communication criteria and achieving at your desired rubric level.

  1. Compare and contrast the demand of health care services with the demand of an automobile (Competency 2).
    1. Identify the key contributing factors that determine demand of health care
    2. Identify the key contributing factors that determine demand of an
    3. Compare and contrast the similarities and differences of the demand curve of these two
  2. Compare and contrast the supply of health care services with the supply of an automobile (Competency 2).

Identify the key contributing factors that determine supply of health care

  1. Identify the key contributing factors that determine supply of an
  2. Compare and contrast the similarities and differences of the supply curve of these two
  1. Explain current legislative trends that influence the supply and demand of health care (Competency 1).
    1. Explain how Medicare and Medicaid impact supply and demand of health care
    2. Discuss the impact of the uninsured population on the supply and demand of health care
  2. Analyze reimbursement methods that influence the supply and demand of health care services (Competency 3).
    1. Identify the stakeholders who pay for health care
    2. Analyze the impact of different reimbursement methodologies and payment models on the supply and demand of health care
  3. Write following APA style for in-text citation, quotes, and references (Competency 5).
    1. Determine the proper application of APA formatting requirements and scholarly writing
    2. Assess the relevance and credibility of information
  4. Write clearly and logically, with correct use of spelling, grammar, punctuation, and mechanics (Competency 5).
    1. Apply the principles of effective
    2. Determine the proper application of the rules of grammar and mechanics

BHA FPX 4112 Assessment 3 Instructions: National Health Insurance in the United States

As you explore the physician services market and the hospital market, you will have an opportunity to explore concepts such as supplier-induced demand and cost shifting. The efficiency of physician and hospital services will be explored, as well as price competition of both physicians and hospitals. Since the price that a hospital or physician charges for services is rarely paid, you will have the opportunity to think about the relevance of price and why we even have prices today.

National health insurance is a highly debated topic in the United States. This assessment focus on creating an outline for a plausible national health insurance program, which will bring into consideration a number of factors, such as financing structure of national health insurance, and think about the advantages and disadvantages of a single-payer system, employee mandates, and refundable tax credits.

You will have an opportunity to look at our neighbor, Canada, and compare the Canadian health system to that of the United States. What are some of the benefits of the Canadian health care system and do those benefits outweigh the costs, such as longer wait times? As you finalize your assessment you will pick a side—for or against—national health insurance.

Demonstration of Proficiency

By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the course competencies through the following assessment scoring guide criteria:

Competency 1: Analyze historical perspectives and current trends in the health care industry.

Explain how legislation has supported or failed to support national health insurance in the United States.

Competency 2: Assess the United States health care system from an economic perspective.

Analyze the implications of national health insurance on access, utilization, technological advancements, cost, and growth in the United States.

Competency 3: Analyze the evolving economic reimbursement trends, methods, and technology.

Explain the necessary reimbursement changes that would be required to transition to national health insurance in the United States.

Competency 4: Analyze how economic and stakeholder influences affect operational planning and decision making.

Explain the necessary operational changes that would be required to transition to national health insurance in the United States.

Competency 5: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and respectful of the diversity, dignity, and integrity of others and is consistent with expectations for health care professionals.

Write following APA style for in-text citation, quotes, and references.

Write clearly and logically, with correct use of spelling, grammar, punctuation, and mechanics.

Context

For almost a century, the U.S. health care system has been a hot topic of debate and a central issue in all political agendas. Many argue that the United States should have national health insurance, similar to Canada, so care is accessible to everyone. Others argue that national health insurance leads to longer wait times and decreased quality.

Instructions

In this assessment, you will consider everything you have learned in this course, including the history of the U.S. health care system, reimbursement methodologies, technology, and operational concerns. Make an argument, grounded in research, for whether or not the United States should implement national health insurance. Reviewing the media piece National Health Care Trade-Offs | Transcript before beginning your assessment may help you to better understand what areas of a national health insurance program you believe are most important, as well as the trade-offs needed to pursue your priorities. BHA FPX 4112 Assessment Discussions

Also, make sure to consult the scoring guide to make sure you are meeting the communication criteria and achieving at your desired rubric level.

Create an 8–12 slide PowerPoint within the context of a brown bag session for colleagues at your current organization or an organization for which you would like to work. The goal of this session is to share innovations and ideas on a truly national health insurance system in the United States, as well as the legislative, economic, and logistical considerations and trade-offs of your plan.

Include the following in your PowerPoint:

  1. Explain how legislation has supported or failed to support national health insurance in the United (Competency 1)
    1. Discuss the impact of Medicare and Medicaid on the health care
    2. Determine the feasibility of expanding Medicare and Medicaid into a national health insurance available for all
  2. Analyze the implications of national health insurance on access, utilization, technological advancements, cost, and growth in the United (Competency 2)
    1. Identify access, utilization, technology, cost, and growth concerns resulting from national health
    2. Analyze the pros and cons of national health insurance in the United States and determine the feasibility of national health insurance in the United States based on the pros and
    3. Explain the necessary reimbursement changes that would be required to transition to national health insurance in the United (Competency 3)
      1. Apply the reimbursement methods of national health insurance to the United States health care
      2. Determine the feasibility of those reimbursement methods in the United States health care

Explain the necessary operational changes that would be required to transition to national health insurance in the United (Competency 4)

  1. Apply the operational practices of national health insurance to the United States health care
  2. Explain how the practices of physicians, hospitals, insurers, patients, and the government would each change to transition to national health
  3. Determine the feasibility of those operational changes in the United States health care
  1. Write following APA style for in-text citation, quotes, and (Competency 5)
    1. Determine the proper application of APA formatting requirements and scholarly writing
    2. Assess the relevance and credibility of information
  2. Write clearly and logically, with correct use of spelling, grammar, punctuation, and (Competency 5)
    1. Apply the principles of effective
    2. Determine the proper application of the rules of grammar and mechanics

Additional Requirements

Written Communication: Prepare an executive summary free of errors that detract from the overall message. Writing must be clear, precise, and scholarly, with concepts that flow in a logical order.

References: Cite at least three references from peer-reviewed journals, in addition to your text.

Length: Submit a 2–3-page executive summary, not including any title or reference page.

APA: Use correct APA style and formatting. You may find it helpful to use the following: APA Style Paper Tutorial [DOCX].

APA Style Paper Template [DOCX].

APA Style and Format.