NURS 6630 Week 3 Quiz Which Neurotransmitter is Considered the Major Excitatory Neurotransmitter?

NURS 6630 Week 3: Concepts in Assessing Medication Adherence and Strategies To Mitigate Non-Adherence

Question 1

Introducing adherence in facilitating treatment goals is something that would be necessary in a patient who has previously displayed nonadherence patterns.

Group of answer choices

  • True
  • False

Question 2

G-protein coupled receptors are targets for several psychiatric medications. Given what we know about these receptors, what is the ultimate result we will see when one of them is activated in a way that would potentiate an action?

Group of answer choices

A. Intracellular activation of second messengers

B. Protein phosphorylation

C. Modification of gene expression

Question 3

Which neurotransmitter is considered the major excitatory neurotransmitter?

Group of answer choices

A. Glycine


C. Glutamate

D. Serotonin

Question 4

G-protein coupled receptors are examples of what type of effector pathway?

Group of answer choices

A. Slow effector pathways

B. Rapid effector pathways

C. NMDA glutamate receptor pathways

D. Modulated effector pathways

Question 5

Of the components of patient-focused interventions to enhance adherence, which component includes the following strategies: adaptive thinking, use of cues, and support? Group of answer choices

  • Motivation
  • Skills
  • Logistics
  • Education

Question 6

Motivation is a component of patient-focused interventions to enhance adherence. Based on the transtheoretical model, readiness to change can fluctuate across five stages. Which stage is represented by the patient who is aware that a problem exists and, while seriously thinking about overcoming it, has not yet committed to a plan of action? Group of answer choices

  • Preparation
  • Action
  • Contemplation
  • Maintenance

Question 7 

The human brain is subcategorized into four major structures. These structures include the cerebral cortex, brainstem, subcortical structures, and the cerebellum. Of these major categories, which one houses the area of the brain that has been found in some neuropathological studies of patients with schizophrenia to be of smaller size? Group of answer choices

  • Cerebral cortex
  • Brainstem
  • Subcortical structures
  • Cerebellum

Question 8

Neurotransmitters are defined by four essential characteristics. These are:

Group of answer choices

A. Neurotransmitters are synthesized within presynaptic neurons.

B. Depolarization of a neuron results in the release of a neurotransmitter, which exerts a multitude of actions on the postsynaptic neuron.

C. Their action on postsynaptic neurons can be replicated by administering a drug that mimics the activity of the endogenous neurotransmitter.

D. Their action in the synaptic cleft is terminated by a specific action.

E. A, C, and D only

Question 9

Serotonin (5HT) is a neurotransmitter associated with mood, sleep, and psychosis. There are several serotonin receptors all over the human body. A unique aspect of the second-generation antipsychotics is their ability to block 5HT2a receptors. What is the effect of this inhibition?

Group of answer choices

A. Stabilizes dopamine concentrations in the CNS

B. Induces anxiety

C. Causes hallucinations

D. Reduces platelet function

Question 10

Treatment adherence is affected by several different factors. Clinical factors include mood, anxiety, psychosis, and substance misuse. There are also patient factors such as knowledge, attitude, and beliefs; economic and racial/ethnic disparities, and clinical encounters. A patient who presents hopeless, with decreased energy, and poor concentration is affected by which factor?

Group of answer choices

  • Substance misuse
  • Knowledge deficits
  • Attitude and belief system
  • Mood

Question 11

A patient arrives in the ED via EMS having a grand mal seizure. The ED physician instructs the RN to give 10 milligrams of Diazepam IV X1 dose STAT. The patient’s seizure breaks within 2 minutes of the Diazepam being administered. The mechanism by which this medication causes rapid resolution of seizure activity is via which receptor type (effector pathway/receptor subtype)?

Group of answer choices

A. Slow effector pathways/G-protein coupled receptor

B. Slow effector pathway/ion channel

C. Rapid effector pathways/G-protein coupled receptor

D. Rapid effector pathway/ion channel

Question 12

Neurotransmission is unidirectional insofar as chemical and electrical conduction is concerned within the individual neuron. Of the following descriptions, which best characterizes the order of neurotransmitter/receptor interaction that results in an electrical signal impulse and the release of another neurotransmitter for interaction in the synaptic cleft (signal conduction through a neuron)?

Group of answer choices

  • Cell body, dendrites, Axon, Axon terminals
  • Dendrites, Axon, Cell body, Axon, Axon terminals
  • Dendrites, Cell body, Axon, Axon terminals
  • Axon terminals, Axon, Cell body, Dendrites

Question 15

If a patient admits to taking his medication every other day (instead of daily, as prescribed), a potential concern would be:

Group of answer choices

A. Sufficient understanding or acceptance of the illness

B. Abuse of the medication

C. Expense

D. Is the desired effect recognized at a lower daily dose?

Question 16

Receptors trigger one of two effector pathways resulting in changes in neuronal activity. These changes will, ultimately, effect gene expression. Which effector pathway is characterized by ion flux through transmitter-activated channels resulting in an altered membrane potential and neuronal activity?

Group of answer choices

A. Slow effector pathways

B. Modulated effector pathways

C. Rapid effector pathways

D. NMDA glutamate receptor pathways

Question 17

Upon blocking a Serotonin reuptake pump, what happens in the synaptic cleft and on the post-synaptic cell membrane?

Group of answer choices

A. The result will be an increase in available Serotonin in the synaptic cleft causing the post-synaptic cell to increase the number of Serotonin receptors.

B. The result will be an increase in the available Serotonin in the synaptic cleft causing the post-synaptic neuron to reduce the number of Serotonin receptors.

C. The result will be an increase in Serotonin in the synaptic cleft resulting in an increase in reuptake pumps on the presynaptic neuron.

D. The result will be an increase in Serotonin in the synaptic cleft resulting in a decrease in reuptake pumps on the pre-synaptic neuron.

Question 180 pts

When dopamine (subtype 2) receptors are blocked in this pathway (system), it is evident by EPS.

Group of answer choices

A. Mesocortical

B. Tuberoinfundibular

C. Nigrostriatal

D. Mesolimbic

Question 19

Which of the following consists of all the known major neurotransmitters that are relevant in psychiatry?

Group of answer choices

  1. glutamate, GABA, dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, histamine, steroids, nitric oxide
  2. glutamate, GABA, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, acetylcholine, histamine, endogenous opioids, steroids, cannabinoids, nitric oxide
  3. glutamate, GABA, dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, endogenous opioids, nitric oxide, cannabinoids, steroids
  4. glutamate, GABA, dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, endogenous opioids, steroids, histamine, nitric oxide

Question 20

Glia cells play a supportive role to the neuron. A few of the functions of the glial cells include providing nutrition, maintaining homeostasis, stabilizing synapses, and myelinating axons. The glial cells are categorized as microglia and macroglia. Of these two cell types, which one plays an active and critical role in glutamatergic neurotransmission by providing a co-agonist required for glutamate receptor function?

Group of answer choices

  • microglial
  • macroglial