NURS 6441 Week 8 Project Execution and Control Part I

NURS 6441 Week 8 Project Execution and Control Part I

I am surrounded by people with good ideas. I need more people that implement them well.

—Will Weider, CIO, Ministry Health Care

The successful execution of a project requires continual control and monitoring to ensure that the project stays on schedule, on budget, and on specification. The ongoing collection, analysis, and reporting of project data is an essential project management tool for monitoring a project’s status throughout its execution; the information generated by this process can be used by the project team to determine appropriate actions to control the project by bringing its time, cost, and performance back in line with the project plan.

This week, you consider how to monitor and control a project throughout its execution.


Learning Objectives for NURS 6441 Week 8 Project Execution and Control Part I

Students will:

  • Apply principles of execution and control to a health information technology project
  • Generate an MS Project plan

Learning Resources for NURS 6441 Week 8 Project Execution and Control Part I

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.

Required Readings for NURS 6441 Week 8 Project Execution and Control Part I

Coplan, S., & Masuda, D. (2011). Project management for healthcare information technology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

  • Chapter 3, “Project Management”
      • “Scope Control” (pp. 58)
      • “Control Schedule” (pp. 64–67)
      • “Control Costs” (pp. 71–75)

    These three areas of Chapter 3 focus on controlling scope, time, and cost, also referred to as the triple constraints.

Project Management Institute. (2017). A guide to the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK® guide) (6th ed.). Newtown Square, PA: Author.

  • Part 2. The Standard for Project Management
      • Chapter 4, “Executing Process Group”
  • These sections of Chapter 3 explore how to coordinate people and resources in accordance with the project management plan. These sections also cover the processes used to track, review, and regulate a project’s performance.
  • Chapter 5, Section 5.6, “Control Scope”
      This section of Chapter 5 explains the process of monitoring a project’s status and scope. The text also describes how to manage changes to the scope baseline.
  • Chapter 6, “Project Time Management”
      • 6.6, “Control Schedule”

    In these pages of Chapter 6, the authors explain the process of monitoring a project’s status to update project progress and manage changes in a schedule baseline.

  • Chapter 7, “Project Cost Management”
      • 7.4, “Control Costs”

    This section of Chapter 7 reviews the processes used to update a project budget and manage changes to the cost baseline.

Cortelyou-Ward, K., & Yniguez, R. (2011). Using monitoring and controlling in an electronic health record module upgrade: A case studyThe Health Care Manager30(3), 236–241.

This article examines the application of monitoring and controlling to an electronic health record module upgrade. The article makes recommendations related to flexibility, tracking changes, teams, milestones, and testing.

Noblin, A. M., Cortelyou-Ward, K., & Ton, S. (2011). Electronic health record implementations: Applying the principles of monitoring and controlling to achieve success. The Health Care Manager30(1), 45–50.

This article explores the principles of monitoring and controlling in the context of an electronic health record implementation. The article also examines issues such as project costs, project progress, schedule controls, quality management, and controlling risks.

Yin G.-L. (2010). Project time and budget monitor and control. Management Science and Engineering, 4(1), 56–61.

The author of this article describes how time and budget can be successfully controlled during a project’s implementation. The author presents techniques for accomplishing this, as well as describing potential pitfalls.

Document: Project Management Tools Available for Apple/Mac Computers (PDF)

This document contains a list of project management tools that are compatible with Apple/Mac computers.

Document: Team Project Overview (PDF)

This document provides an overview of the Team Project you will work on throughout this course.

Required Media – NURS 6441 Week 8 Project Execution and Control Part I

Laureate Education (Producer). (2013b). Executing, monitoring, and controlling [Video file]. Retrieved from

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 8 minutes.

In this presentation, roundtable participants Dr. Mimi Hassett, Dr. Judy Murphy, and Dr. Susan Newbold discuss the science of executing a project and the art that is involved in the continued monitoring and controlling of it. They talk about the triple constraint of cost, scope, and time and suggest some automated tools and skills that can help in tracking shifting components of a project.

NURS 6441 Week 8 Project Execution and Control Part I Discussion: Project Control

The actual implementation of a project occurs within the execution phase. During this phase, it is not uncommon for project managers to determine that projects have deviated from the original scope, time, or cost (the “triple constraint”), often due to unforeseen issues. When one element of this “triple constraint” changes, project managers must adjust the remaining two elements in order to satisfy project requirements. Maintaining this balance is one of the greatest challenges a project manager faces.

In this Discussion, you examine scenarios featuring issues that arise during the execution phase of a project. You analyze how you would modify the project in terms of scope, time, and cost in order to resolve the issues and fulfill project requirements. You also explain how you would communicate these modifications to key stakeholders.

Consider the following scenarios.

  1. You are the lead project manager tasked with implementing a hospital’s new patient identification and tracking system. The currently planned system is designed to function using only barcodes, but many key stakeholders have called for the system to also include the use of radio-frequency identification (RFID) features. In order to meet the demands of the stakeholders, your project scope expands to include RFID technology. How will you modify your budget and schedule to accommodate this increased scope?
  2. You are managing the development of a computerized physician order entry (CPOE) system in a hospital that caters to the suburban population of a major city. A much larger hospital that accommodates most of the city’s downtown residents has recently been severely damaged in a storm. As a result, the inner-city hospital is operating at a low level of capacity and diverts much of its patient flow to other hospitals. In order to help alleviate the strain caused by this new influx of patients, your hospital’s executives are requiring you to implement the CPOE system 2 weeks early. Your project team is currently composed of just enough individuals to complete the project on time using the originaltimeline. The planned CPOE system has many non-essential features that usually take two phases to implement. However, these features are currently planned to be incorporated during your single-phase CPOE implementation. How do you adjust the project’s scope and cost to meet the new schedule demands?
  3. You are managing the implementation of an electronic medical record system in a small physician’s office. Due to much lower-than-expected profits in the fourth quarter, you have had a substantial cut in the amount of funding available for your project. The scope of the medical record system is more extensive than the bare minimum required for a practice of this size. In addition, the implementation schedule is as condensed as possible to reduce downtime in the office. This condensed schedule requires the use of expensive, high-quality resources. How can you adjust your plan to compensate for the project’s reduced budget?


To prepare for NURS 6441 Week 8 Project Execution and Control Part I:

  • By Day 1 of this week, your Instructor will assign you to a specific scenario. Review this week’s Learning Resources on controlling the elements of the “triple constraint,” and consider how they apply to the scenario to which you were assigned.
  • Determine how you could modify the project in your assigned scenario in terms of scope, time, or cost in order to fulfill the project requirements.
  • Consider how you would communicate the modifications you identified to key stakeholders.

By Day 3 of NURS 6441 Week 8 Project Execution and Control Part I

Post the number of your assigned scenario and a description of where and how you would adjust the plan in terms of budget, scope, and timeline. Explain how you would communicate modifications to key stakeholders. Provide rationale for your response.

By Day 6 of NURS 6441 Week 8 Project Execution and Control Part I

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days, using one or more of the following approaches:

  • Critique your colleagues’ modifications.
  • Suggest an alternative strategy for communicating the modifications to key stakeholders.
  • Validate your colleagues’ chosen modifications or communication strategies with your own experience or additional research.

Project Management Paper Example

Describe the people, groups, or organizations that comprise the project stakeholder community.

The project stakeholder community includes people, organizations, and groups with a consigned interest or care about a project. The project stakeholder community comprises the top management, project team, project manager, sponsors, investors, resource managers, internal customers, external customers, government, subcontractors, contractors, and suppliers (Derakhshan et al., 2019).

The top management constitutes the company’s president, directors, vice president, corporate committee, and division managers. These individuals guide an organization’s development and strategy. The project team comprises persons borrowed temporarily or devoted and enthusiastic about the project. A project manager provides the project team direction, support, and leadership when completing their tasks. Resource managers are in charge of handling resources. The external customers are the clients.

A project sponsor (an organization or individual) acts as the investor, initiator, administrator, advisor, and critical decision-maker (Pedrini & Ferri, 2019). The sponsor also approves capital allocations and makes decisions concerning the flow of money within a project. Project investors are people who commit funds to a project with the expectation of receiving monetary profits. The external customers would purchase and use the project’s products and services. Internal customers have an association with the organization through partnership or employment.

Project managers must work with government departments and regulators, including the provincial, federal, municipal, and international governments. The project subcontractors, contractors, and suppliers offer resources and expertise to a project. They include electricians, architects, and carpenters. Numerous projects rely on commodities provided by outside suppliers. The project stakeholder community is actively involved with a project’s work and has something to lose or gain from the project’s results. The project may impact the stakeholder community and have a corporate interest in a project outcome. Identifying the stakeholder community is vital to meeting the project objectives and goals.

Describe each stakeholder’s organizational position, project roles, expectations, and communications requirements.

The stakeholder register contains information related to the stakeholder’s organizational positions, expectations, project roles, and communications requirements. The register contains details encompassing classification, assessment information, and identification information. The stakeholder’s organizational positions include the top management, sponsor, investor, resource manager, project team, and project manager. The project roles encompass the project lead, sponsor, coordinator, functional or technical lead, and clients.

The executive sponsor authorizes the financial plan while the project lead manages individuals, risks, issues, and conflicts (Freeman et al., 2018). The project coordinator coordinates the project’s efforts, while the functional or technical lead can allocate resources and work. The top management is expected to guide the strategy and development of the project. The project team will exhibit high professionalism in the task, job, or skill. They will perform the project’s specific tasks to attain its objectives.

The project manager is responsible for applying project management approaches to ensure the project’s success. The sponsor provides support and resources for the project. Responsible for facilitating success (Pedrini & Ferri, 2019). The investor provides ideas and financial aid to boost and promote the project. Participate in financial and managerial decisions. The internal and external clients will pay for the project services and products. Additionally, the subcontractors, contractors, and suppliers will supply services or acquire resources for the project.

Lastly, the government will address organizational, financial, and technological barriers. The top management team will be contacted through face-to-face meetings, emails, project documentation, and newsletters. Similarly, the project team and manager, investor, resource managers, contractors, subcontractors, suppliers, and internal clients will be contacted via interactive communication, encompassing phone conversations and video conferencing. The government and external customers will be contacted via pull communication through project websites. The top management, sponsor, and investor will also be contacted through push communication via emails, project documentation, and project newsletters.

Record stakeholder information in the stakeholder register below.

Stakeholder Name Type

(Internal/ External)

Organizational Position Role in Project Expectations Communications


Top management Internal Senior management team Project lead Guide the project’s development and strategy. Interactive communication through face-to-face meetings and Push communication through emails, project documentation, and newsletters.
Team Internal Project team Team members Exhibit high levels of professionalism in the task, job, or skill. They perform the project’s specific tasks to attain its objectives. Interactive communication through face-to-face meetings, video conferencing, and phone conversations
Manager Internal Management team Project lead Responsible for applying project management approaches to ensure project success. Interactive communication through face-to-face meetings and phone conversations
Sponsor External Senior management team Executive Sponsor Provides support and resources for the project. Responsible for facilitating success. Push communication through emails and project documentation, and newsletters.
Investor External Primary stakeholder Executive sponsor Provide ideas and financial aid to boost and promote the project. Participate in financial and managerial decisions. Interactive communication through face-to-face meetings and Push communication through emails and project documentation, and newsletters.
Resource managers Internal Management team Project Coordinator Control project resources. Interactive communication through face-to-face meetings, video conferencing, and phone conversations
Internal customers Internal Primary stakeholders Client Pay for the project services and products. Interactive communication through face-to-face meetings
External customers External Primary stakeholders Client Pay for the project services and products. Pull communication through the project website.
Contractors, suppliers, and subcontractors External Primary stakeholders Functional/ technical lead Supply services or acquire resources for the project. Interactive communication through face-to-face meetings and phone conversations and pull communication through the project website.
Government External Secondary stakeholders Project Coordinator Concerned about the organizational, financial, and technological barriers. Pull communication through the project website.


Describe the strategy that will be used to manage stakeholders for the Water Cube project.

Stakeholder mapping is the strategy that will be utilized to manage stakeholders for the water cube project. The strategy will involve conducting a detailed stakeholder examination to categorize the stakeholders. The key factors will be recognized and inspected, encompassing the demographics, project proximity, needs and concerns, interests, and expectations.

Stakeholder mapping also involves a thorough comprehension of the internal stakeholder team, including the suppliers and contractors, immediate staff, and alliances (Albats et al., 2020). Stakeholder mapping for the water cube project will facilitate the investigation of whether the right resources are available and effective team functioning. Stakeholder mapping will assist in categorizing stakeholders, allocating resources, understanding the stakeholder volume, and bringing the team together.

Describe the purpose of a stakeholder management strategy.

A stakeholder management strategy is critical for the success of a project. The strategy certifies that the stakeholder’s interests and expectations are comprehended for their proper management. A strategy allows the project manager to articulate to the project team how communication will work (Albats et al., 2020). The strategy also aids in examining and evaluating the stakeholders and understanding them better.  This way, their needs are anticipated or projected, and their concerns can easily be addressed.

The strategy covers the stakeholder expectations, prioritization of stakeholders, action plans, and communication rules. The action plans outline how stakeholders’ involvement will be managed and the stages to be taken to guarantee that their expectations are fulfilled. The communication rules framework the rate of recurrence, category, and level of communication with every stakeholder. Prioritizing stakeholders involves ranking them founded on their capacity to impact a project and their concern for its results (Falcão et al., 2020). The stakeholder expectations include their involvement and their communication preference.

A stakeholder management plan enables categorizing stakeholders based on their project interests and influence (Nguyen et al., 2018). The plan also aids in understanding the stakeholders who need attention to focus and assign the resources effectively. The strategy also assists in understanding the volume of stakeholders engaged in the project and the degree of engagement. It allows for identifying vital stakeholders who positively influence a project to establish healthy relationships.

Understanding the stakeholders’ perspectives as soon as possible is essential. Significantly, a stakeholder management strategy helps unite the team, ensuring everyone is on the same page for successful stakeholder management. The stakeholder management strategy describes how the project team manages the key stakeholders’ expectations and goals in the project’s lifecycle.

  • Describe the methods that will be used to identify project stakeholders. (3–4 paragraphs)
  • Describe the methods that will be used to determine stakeholder communications requirements. (3–4 paragraphs)

The methods that will be used to identify project stakeholders

One way to identify the stakeholders is to draw on the project charter and any other documentation or project plan to collect an entire list of internal and external stakeholders. Another method that will be used to identify stakeholders is brainstorming. The technique is free-form, involving the team and the project sponsor is essential. The process will involve the team listing all potential stakeholders individually, which is a great place to start.

The other technique includes a stakeholder role profile. Similar to a risk profile utilized to scan for common project risks, a stakeholder profile categorizes stakeholders familiar with each project (Downar, 2018). Following the decision is another method to categorize stakeholders. Projects involve authorizations and decisions. The technique involves rereading the project plan and outlining all the authorization points and decisions, considering the decision-makers at every point.

The other method involves seeking the secondary stakeholders, individuals not involved in project execution, such as clients, regulators, and project opponents. Similar to risk management, the initial step in the stakeholder management process is identifying stakeholders using various identification techniques.

The methods that will be used to determine stakeholder communications requirements

Stakeholder communication is crucial as it assists in building mutual trust and working together effectively. Building on the stakeholders’ communication and feedback improves a project’s results. The methods used to determine the stakeholder’s communication requirement include categorizing the stakeholders based on their power and interest in the project, determining the communication type and channel, stakeholder goal and expectations, and communication frequency.

The stakeholders prefer different communication types and channels, a factor to consider when determining their communication requirements (Derakhshan et al., 2019). Creating a communications plan is significant for stakeholder communication requirements. The plan outlines how, when, and the format used to communicate with the stakeholders. Choosing the appropriate communication method is substantial, depending on the stakeholder’s preference (Civera et al., 2019).

The methods are push, pull, and interactive communication. Another method to determine the stakeholders’ communication requirements is to identify the information they need over the entire project’s lifecycle. As a project ends, stakeholder communication requirements may vary. Asking the stakeholders regularly if they have similar needs is critical. Determining stakeholder communication requirements is essential only if it provides them value and they can understand the communication.

Stakeholder Analysis

The level of power and interest each stakeholder has in the project.

Power and interest are the primary variables that describe stakeholders and how they impact a project. Power is a stakeholder’s capacity to stop or alter a project. Interests refer to the degree of stakeholder involvement in the project. The government has high power but low interest in the project. As such, the government regulatory agency must be pleased to avoid withholding authorizations.

The top management has high power and low interest in the project. The team has low power and increased interest in the project. The sponsor and investor have high power and low interest in the project. The resources manager and manager have high power and interest in the project. The contractors, subcontractors, and suppliers have low power and increased interest in the project. Essentially, stakeholders with both low power and interest must be supervised to guarantee they do not manage to alter or stop the project (Bahadorestani et al., 2020). Those with high power and interest must be actively supervised due to their crucial impact on the project.

The stakeholders with high power and low interest must be pleased to certify that a minor stakeholder does not disrupt the project. Lastly, stakeholders with high interest and low power must be kept informed to guarantee their support for the project. A stakeholder analysis is a continuing exercise that helps categorize those who oppose and support a project.

Each stakeholder’s potential impact on the project, based on power and interest

An interest/power grid equates stakeholders based on their involvement and authority in a project. With high power and low interest, the top management makes the most significant decisions, giving them high impact but limited bandwidth to focus on the project outcomes (Zhuang, 2019). They must be kept satisfied through constant communication.

With high power and interest rates, the project manager and resources manager have the most significant influence on the project’s success, and expectations must be closely managed. With increased power and medium interest, the investors and sponsors can control the project in an undesired manner if they are unsatisfied with it. With low power and high interest, the project team must be sufficiently and effectively informed. The team directly impacts the project, and each individual performs specific and unique tasks to ensure project success.

With low interest and power, the external and internal customers indirectly influence a project and should be monitored without boring them with excessive communication: the contractors, suppliers, and subcontractors. The government, with high power and low interest, regulates the regulations and decrees that can shut down a project (Zhuang, 2019).

The power/interest grid prioritizes stakeholders based on their project participation and control or authority.

A power/interest grid for the project

Stakeholder Engagement Strategies

How stakeholders will be engaged in the project on an ongoing basis

The stakeholders will be engaged on an ongoing basis through the stakeholder engagement plan. The engagement plan is part of the project management plan that categorizes the approaches and actions needed to support effective stakeholder involvement in project implementation and decision-making. 

The Water Cube’s stakeholders will be engaged on an ongoing basis by getting them to talk to one another, managing their expectations, keeping them satisfied, keeping them informed, leading with integrity, and communicating effectively. According to Zou and Leslie-Carter (2010), the most imperative strategy is hiring and leading clever individuals who might resist being controlled and working to time limits.

Getting stakeholders to communicate with one another will promote ongoing project involvement. Effective communication and constant updates about the project’s progress also help it maintain its engagement (Bahadorestani et al., 2020). Developing and upholding a communication plan is critical in ensuring a continuing engagement. Managing stakeholders closely, particularly the project team, and keeping them satisfied promotes their ongoing project engagement (Boaz et al., 2018). Engaging with sponsors, executives, and higher management to attain commitment and manage their expectations and interests encourages their engagement.

Strategies for managing stakeholder expectations

Every stakeholder has expectations. Therefore, working with the team to manage their expectations is crucial. One strategy for managing stakeholder expectations is ensuring the project’s success is plainly defined before its commencement. Defining the project variables, including its goals, is essential for managing stakeholder expectations (Pirozzi,2019). This way, the stakeholders can decide if the project matches their interests.

The second strategy involves ensuring that stakeholders see the project’s values as soon as possible. Keeping the project focused by familiarizing the stakeholders with the initial goals, pitch, and timeline helps manage their expectations (Byrne, 2019). The other strategy encompasses maintaining simplicity when communicating with the stakeholders.

Finding a mutual ground with the stakeholders to ensure they receive similar data, reports, and development updates manages their expectations (Stocker et al., 2020). Showcasing the project’s progress by offering updated reports on the team’s discoveries, for instance, managing stakeholder expectations. The final strategy will involve asking for stakeholder feedback, opinions, comments, and suggestions concerning the project. Managing stakeholder expectations by informing and engaging them in the ongoing project promotes success.

Ways in which managing stakeholder engagement is related to project success

Managing stakeholder expectations ensures that they are actively involved in the project execution process. Managing their expectations builds stakeholders’ trust and confidence and allows them to understand the process and any decisions made. Managing their expectations assists in augmenting trust, building improved relationships, and boosting satisfaction among external and internal parties, resulting in smoother project operations (Civera et al., 2019). The project stakeholders, for instance, the project sponsor and investor, are interested in the projects’ outcomes.

Managing stakeholders’ expectations also reduces risk through their engagement. This increases the prospect of project success. Managing stakeholder expectations is critical to project success because they can understand the situation better and have different expectations (Oliveira & Rabechini, 2019). Comprehending the project stakeholders and their needs sponsors the success of a project.

Stakeholders and Change Management

How project changes will be managed for the project

Project changes are unavoidable and arise over the project lifecycle’s course. The most critical aspect of managing project changes is being prepared always. The project changes will be managed by describing the change objective, developing plans and approaches to attain the objective, formulating a project management cluster to upshot the change, and installing a control procedure to observe progress. Defining the change objective affects the plans and approaches needed for the project change (Sanghera, 2019). The objective describes the why, what, who, when, and how.

The lack of a clear definition of objectives exposes the project to major challenges. Defining the change objectives facilitates project change management. An approach describing how a project’s objectives will be attained must be established in the initial phases. The approach must accommodate the financial requirements, political environment, and change complexity. Developing approaches and plans to attain the objective simplifies project change management. Most project changes need a full-time management effort, necessitating a project management group or cluster.

When managing the change procedure, diverse skills from various individuals must be incorporated at different project stages. Installing a control procedure or process to observe a project’s progress will help manage the project changes. Project changes might occur at any stage of the project. Managing the changes effectively is significant.

How project changes will be communicated to the project stakeholders

Effective communication simplifies stakeholder engagement when managing project changes. The project changes will be communicated through various communication channels encompassing one-on-one meetings, phone conversations, emails, and video conferencing. The changes will also be communicated transparently and regularly. Communicating frequently about the project change in numerous venues will effectively communicate with the stakeholders (Sanghera, 2019). This will also allow them to question the project changes and voice their issues and concerns.

The project changes will be communicated effectively to the stakeholders through newsletters and emails, project summary reports, online presentations, and email automation. Effective change communications necessitate the active involvement of the stakeholders (Caputo et al., 2018). The emails and newsletters deliver immediate information and simplify communication management with stakeholders. Setting up consistent and systematic daily updates to every stakeholder through email automation will effectively communicate the project changes. Email automation will allow email customization with dynamic content and only send specific information to stakeholders.

Virtual presentations, online or physical, are a popular means to communicate with stakeholders. Even if a project summary report is an outdated technique of stakeholder communication, it is an effective means to communicate about the project changes (Caputo et al., 2018). Communicating the project changes effectively facilitates stakeholder engagement when changes occur.


Albats, E., Alexander, A., Mahdad, M., Miller, K., & Post, G. (2020). Stakeholder management in SME open innovation: Interdependences and strategic actions. Journal of Business Research, 119, 291-301.

Bahadorestani, A., Naderpajouh, N., & Sadiq, R. (2020). Planning for sustainable stakeholder engagement based on the assessment of conflicting interests in projects. Journal of Cleaner Production, 242, 118402.

Boaz, A., Hanney, S., Borst, R., O’Shea, A., & Kok, M. (2018). How to engage stakeholders in research: design principles to support improvement. Health Research Policy And Systems, 16(1), 1-9.

Byrne, M. (2019). Increasing the impact of behavior change intervention research: Is there a role for stakeholder engagement? Health Psychology, 38(4), 290.

Caputo, F., Evangelista, F., & Russo, G. (2018). The role of information sharing and communication strategies for improving stakeholder engagement. In Business models for strategic innovation (pp. 25-43). Routledge.

Civera, C., De Colle, S., & Casalegno, C. (2019). Stakeholder engagement through empowerment: The case of coffee farmers. Business Ethics: A European Review, 28(2), 156-174.

de Oliveira, G. F., & Rabechini Jr, R. (2019). Stakeholder management influence on trust in a project: A quantitative study. International Journal of Project Management, 37(1), 131-144.

Derakhshan, R., Turner, R., & Mancini, M. (2019). Project governance and stakeholders: a literature review. International Journal of Project Management, 37(1), 98–116.

Downar, W. (2018). Identification and mapping of project stakeholders: criteria and methods. Management, 24, 640. 

Falcão, P., Ramalho, N., & Nobre, M. (2020). Stakeholder management: the new role of business diplomacy. Journal of Business Strategy.

Freeman, R. E., Harrison, J. S., & Zyglidopoulos, S. (2018). Stakeholder theory: Concepts and strategies. Cambridge University Press.

Nguyen, T. S., Mohamed, S., & Panuwatwanich, K. (2018). Stakeholder Management in Complex Project: Review of Contemporary Literature. Journal of Engineering, Project & Production Management, 8(2). 

Pedrini, M., & Ferri, L. M. (2019). Stakeholder management: a systematic literature review. Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society.

Pirozzi, M. (2019). The stakeholder perspective: relationship management to increase value and success rates of projects. Taylor & Francis.

Sanghera, P. (2019). Planning for communication and stakeholder management. In PMP® in Depth (pp. 313–341). Apress, Berkeley, CA.

Stocker, F., de Arruda, M. P., de Mascena, K. M., & Boaventura, J. M. (2020). Stakeholder engagement in sustainability reporting: a classification model. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 27(5), 2071-2080.

Zhuang, T., Qian, Q. K., Visscher, H. J., Elsinga, M. G., & Wu, W. (2019). The role of stakeholders and their participation network in the decision-making of urban renewal in China: The case of Chongqing. Cities, 92, 47-58.

Zou, P. X., & Leslie-Carter, R. (2010). Lessons learned from managing the design of the ‘Water Cube’ National Swimming Centre for the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. Architectural Engineering and Design Management, 6(3), 175–188.

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