Dementia Sample Paper


Dementia (moderate cognitive impairment) is a collective word utilized to define numerous cognitive deterioration symptoms encompassing forgetfulness. Dementia is a condition of some underlying ailments and brain syndromes. It is most apparent in elderly individuals who end up requiring maximum care, particularly from family caregivers. I chose dementia as my research topic because my grandmother suffered from dementia. This essay reviews four articles discussing dementia, evaluating common dementia causes, and suggesting ways to alleviate the condition.

The article “Where is Dementia? A Systematic Literature Review Exploring Neuroanatomical Aspects of Dementia” by Oh and LaPointe (2017) defines dementia is an ailment connected with and caused by the physical alterations that occur in the brain. Further, the signs and symptoms of the forms of dementia are identical. This makes it problematic to determine dementia category using behavioral symptoms exclusively. The authors intended to give a deeper understanding of the neuroanatomical components of dementia, encompassing the nature of the different dementia types, symptoms, and signs. The review informs that common diseases that cause dementia include Dementia with Lewy Lodies (DLB), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), vascular dementia (VD), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Computed tomography (CT) are techniques used to aid in diagnosing dementia, mainly rule out revocable, curable conditions.

The methods used in the study to select and assimilate neuroanatomical features of dementia include longitudinal studies, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-RCTs, and case-control studies. The participants encompassed individuals of different ages with cognitive or chronic impairment. From the results, the authors identify AD as “the most prevalent type of dementia.” AD covers 62% of the dementia populace, categorized by the existence of additional cellular amyloid plaques, neuronal loss, and interneuronal neurofibrillary tangle (Oh & LaPointe, 2017). AD is associated with long-term memory shortages. The report concludes that further research should focus on expanding knowledge on dementia diagnosis founded on neuroanatomy to make a precise diagnosis, and recommend appropriate management and treatment plan.

In his analysis, Kenney identifies Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) as the major cause of dementia. The report defines AD as an incurable and draining brain sickness that affects around six million individuals in the United States, particularly those aged 65 years and above. The study asserts that present pharmacological medications have minimal benefits and do nearly nothing to reduce brain damage development, resulting in enduring additional intellectual function loss in clienteles with Alzheimer’s disease. The study recommends that “one of the most promising strategies that likely can help prevent or at least delay the onset of AD is the adoption of a healthier diet and lifestyle” (Kenney, 2021). Based on the editorial, Vascular Dementia (VD) is the second most common dementia cause in America. The author concludes that AD and VD are the leading causes of dementia.

According to Kenney (2021), the two conditions have a direct association with modern western-style meals high in cholesterol, saturated fat, added salts. Diets and beverages that are highly processed and with concentrated calorie levels facilitate weight gain, type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, mounting the risk of moderate cognitive impairment. Notably, AD cases in America are expected to reach approximately 14 million by 2050, majorly from the increasing aging population (Kenney, 2021). Alzheimer’s disease is distinguished by the brain’s accumulation of two toxic proteins, tau, and beta-amyloid, terminating its capacity to function.

The article “factors influencing the deterioration from cognitive decline of normal aging to dementia among nursing home residents” by Hayajneh et al. (2020) seeks to classify and inspect the connection between dementia (moderate cognitive impairment) and medical factors in nursing homes residents. The attempt to categorize the factors that cause the transition of MCI to dementia and successfully identify depression, disability, comorbidities, hospitalization, quality of life, and fragility. The study involved 182 participants in nursing homes from Jordan’s central region. Hayajneh et al. (2020) assert that “Nursing homes are one of the places where older people or geriatric patients are institutionalized.” The study incorporated bivariate examination, together with ANOVA test and t-test. Based on the result, 87.4% of the nursing home residents had mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Few nursing home residents had dementia (moderate cognitive impairment).

Notably, MCI is regarded as a transitional stage between dementia and normal cognition. At this transitional stage, it is possible to implement modified interventions to hinder its worsening to dementia. Additionally, cohabitation of MCI and depression considerably predisposes older adults to moderate cognitive impairment. Depression was identified in most clienteles with cognitive impairments and MCI, exposing them to higher risks of dementia in future (Hayajneh, 2020). The report informs that a combination of MCI and depression complicates the patient’s health conditions at later life stages. Essentially, the existence of comorbidities like diabetes mellitus, MCI, and depression in elderly individuals requires early examination and appropriate management to attain an improved standard of life. The article concludes that the presence of depression and comorbidities among nursing home residents with MCI demands rapid management to alleviate dementia risks.

According to, Zarepour, Hazrati, & Kadivar (2020), there have been increased mental problems such as anxiety among family caregivers resulting from the growing elderly populace and chronic ailments such as moderate cognition impairment. The authors assert that the probability of suffering from dementia increases with age. Dementia refers to a longstanding gradual condition where a person’s consciousness level is constant and causes behavior, memory, and thinking disruptions. The condition also hinders the capacity to conduct everyday activities. The elderly individuals with moderate cognition impairment tend to require significant levels of continuous care, often from household caregivers. Often, family caregivers spend numerous hours taking care of such individuals, increasing apprehension levels. Additionally, “caregivers of the elderly people with dementia have a negative attitude in terms of physical health, energy, mood, memory and ability to perform recreational activities” (Zarepour, Hazrati, & Kadivar, 2020).

Essentially, the review intended to identify the impact of educational involvement on family caregivers for elderly individuals with moderate cognitive impairment. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in Neurology clinics for the elderly in Shiraz for three months on 70 households with elderly individuals exhibiting moderate cognitive impairment. The review suggests that educational programs intended to uphold and endorse healthcare providers’ mental and physical well-being could decrease nervousness or apprehension on the household caregivers of the aging with moderate cognition impairment (dementia). Additionally, healthcare service providers need more support and training on psychological and physical fitness care (Zarepour, Hazrati, & Kadivar, 2020). The study recommends offering educational services family caregivers, which should be and labeled and directed in medical structures.


Dementia is a common disease that primarily affects the elderly. Family caregivers of individuals with dementia are prone to develop increased anxiety levels due to increased dependability from the elderly and insufficient dementia knowledge. Importantly, maintaining healthy meals and lifestyles reduces the probability of Alzheimer’s disease and Vascular Dementia among elderly persons.


  • Hayajneh, A. A., Rababa, M., Alghwiri, A. A., & Masha’al, D. (2020). Factors influencing the deterioration from cognitive decline of normal aging to dementia among nursing home residents. BMC geriatrics, 20(1), 1-9.
  • Kenney, J. J. (2021). Diet and the Risk of Dementia.
  • Oh, C., & LaPointe, L. (2017). “Where is Dementia?” A Systematic Literature Review Exploring Neuroanatomical Aspects of Dementia. Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups, 2(15), 9-23.
  • Zarepour, A., Hazrati, M., & Kadivar, A. A. (2020). The Impact of Educational Intervention on the Anxiety of Family Caregivers of the Elderly with Dementia: A Randomized Controlled Trial. International Journal of Community Based Nursing and Midwifery, 8(3), 234. /10.30476/ijcbnm.2020.81680.0