Research Data analysis for demographic variables

Research Data analysis for demographic variables

Research Data analysis for demographic variables

Methodology

  • Data Analysis Plans
    • Describe plan for data analysis for demographic variables (descriptive statistical tests).
    • Describe plan for data analysis of study variables (descriptive and inferential statistical tests).

    Here is my data analysis and plans.

Parametric and non-parametric tests according to changingminds.org (2016) are two types of ways to test research. Parametric has a standard dissemination that provides more inferences and the design can be statistically defined also known as bell shaped, while those that do not fit the normal bell curve would be classified as non-parametric (changingminds.org, 2016).

Changingminds.org (2016) notes that parametric testing tests data that is ratio or interval and measures the mean to draw more deductions while parametric uses ordinal or nominals and measures the median allowing for uncomplicatedness therefore are least affected by variables.

Types of parametric tests for correlation is a Pearson test. For independent measures of two groups there is a t-test or for more than two groups the ANOVA measurement. While non-parametric tests for correlation is Spearman testing. For groups of two there is the Mann-Whitney test or the Kruskal-Wallis test for two or more groups (Changingminds.org, 2016).

According to Real-Statistics.com (2016) four assumptions are needed. There needs to be a normal or symmetric distribution, the information collected must have the same differences, statistics have a linear correlation, and the figures are independent.

My project is does increasing nursing staff on the floor decrease patient’s LOS related to unnecessary errors. The research hypothesis is that nurses who have an increase in patient load also have an increase in patient errors including medications and safety. The data analysis plan for my project is Pearson for correlation and one-sample median test. Research Data analysis for demographic variables

My null hypothesis is that there were no patient incidents. By ensuring that my sample size is close to 100, by use of the Central Limit Theorem, I will be able to guarantee the normal distribution of my dependent variable.Research: Data analysis for demographic variables

References

Changingminds.org. (2016). Retrieved from http://changingminds.org/explanations/research/analysis/parametric_non-parametric.htm.

Real-statistics.com. (2016). Retrieved from http://www.real-statistics.com/descriptive-statistics/assumptions-statistical-test/.

Below you will find what I have to this point as far as paper and references. Thank you.

Research: Data analysis for demographic variables

With the climate today in healthcare, hospitals must seek other ways to cut costs.  Staffing

tends to be the first area of cuts to budgets.  However; it has been found that patient safety errors tend to increase when staff is decreased (Frederickson, 2013).  Some states have taken it upon themselves to set up maximum patient to staff ratios.  These states have seen lower incidents and higher staff satisfaction (Tellez & Ann Seago,Research Data analysis for demographic variables 2013).

PROBLEM:  Increasing patient to staff ratios also increases safety risks to patients.

RESEARCH PURPOSE:  To determine if there is correlation between increased patient to staff ratios and increase in medication errors, treatment errors, falls, cardiac arrests, and deaths.

PIOCT Questions: (P) Do nurses who have higher patient loads (I) make more errors and (O) potentially have worse patient outcomes (C) than nurses who have smaller patient loads (T) over the course of 6 months to 1 year.

References

Frederickson, W. (2013). Nurses Are Exposing the Reality: Patients Are At Risk. Minnesota Nursing Accent, 5-7.

Tellez, M., & Ann Seago, J. (2013). California Nurse Staffing Law and RN Workforce Changes. Nursing Economic$, 18-26.

Bibliography for Qualitative

  1. Cox Patrick, W. W. (2014). The American Epidemic: The U.S. Nursing Shortage and Turnover Problem. Marshall Digital Scholar.
  2. Kundson, L. (2013). Nurse staffing levels linked to patient outcomes, nurse retention. AORN Connections.
  3. Mills Jane, C.-S. J. (2016). Retaining early career registered nurses: a case study. Bio Medical Central, 1-6.
  4. Susan Bradley, F. K. (2015). Too few staff, too many patients: a qualitative study of the impact on obstetric care providers and on quality of care in Malawi. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4377843/

References for Quanitative Research Data analysis for demographic variables

  1. Fitzsimons, S. M. (2013). Knowing Generation Y: a new generation of nurses in practice. British Journal of Nursing, 1173-1179.
  2. Frederickson, W. (2013). Nurses Are Exposing the Reality: Patients Are At Risk. Minnesota Nursing Accent, 5-7.
  3. Rep. Schakowsky, J. D.-I.-9. (2017, May 5). H.R.2392 – Nurse Staffing Standards for Hospital Patient Safety and Quality Care Act of 2017. Retrieved from Congress.gov: https://www.congress.gov/bill/115th-congress/house-bill/2392
  4. Tellez, M., & Ann Seago, J. (2013). California Nurse Staffing Law and RN Workforce Changes. Nursing Economic$, 18-26.

Theories explaining the impact of nursing work and staffing in care organizations are limited. Additional theories are required to assist the management in making effective decisions concerning nurse staffing in the organizations. Despite the limited number of theories that explain the concept of nurse staffing, the few that are available staffing leads to the establishment of the global duties placed on nurses within care organizations (Duffy, Research Data analysis for demographic variables 2013). Nurses are essential within the care organizations as they help increase the quality of care offered to the patients.

The nursing services delivery theory, for instance, acts as a guide in research to help the management identify the nursing services within care facilities. The theory allows organizations to determine aspects in care organizations such as nurse staffing and nursing work and their work environment.

Further, the theory tries to identify the connection between the work of nurses, their environment, and staffing with the global responsibilities placed on nurses in care organizations (Meyer and O’Brien‐Pallas, Research Data analysis for demographic variables 2010). Thus, the theory claims that staffing contributes to the work and responsibility given to nurses and their coordination at work.

This theory can be applied to the current study on staffing of nurses within care organizations. For instance, the management within care facilities can rely on this theory during research to establish how the aspects such as nursing work, staffing, and work environment influence the duties of the nurses.

Also, the theory can allow leaders within care facilities to establish how staffing can be utilized to increase the quality of care provided to the patients. Also, the theory can be integrated into the current study to establish how nursing work influences the outcome of care services provided to clients in the medical organizations. Research Data analysis for demographic variables

References

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Duffy, J. R., & Duffy, J. R. (2013). Quality caring in nursing and health systems: Implications for clinicians, educators, and leaders. New York, NY: Springer Pub.

Meyer, R. M., & O’Brien‐Pallas, L. L. (2010). Nursing services delivery theory: an open system approach. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(12), 2828-2838.

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Literature Review

Introduction

This section will provide a review of the literature on the different studies done on staffing and the effect on retention and patient care. Patients were more concerned about the cost of healthcare services as opposed to quality. However, most of the studies done after the enactment of the Affordable Care Act emphasizes on quality at a minimal cost. These trends indicate a shift to patient-centered care that incorporates the needs of the patient. Research Data analysis for demographic variables

Literature Review

According to a study done by Aiken et al. (2012), the inadequate nursing levels in American hospitals have made it difficult for nurses to provide safe and effective care. The shortage in nursing leads to workload which increases nursing burnout. There is an increased level of job dissatisfaction among the nursing profession as compared to other professionals. The nurse-patient ratio in most of the hospitals causes burnouts which influences the retention rate. Research Data analysis for demographic variables

These trends have led to healthcare institutions losing their skilled and experienced workforce hence affecting the quality of healthcare services. Mortality rate and ability to save patients depends on the nurse-patient ratio. In a healthcare institution where there is a nursing shortage, the rescue of patients admitted for inpatient acute care within the first days of admission is limited.

Nurses have a responsibility of monitoring patient condition, early detection, and prompt intervention to save the lives of their patients. However, to achieve all these functions nurses need to have the required skills and a reduced nurse-patient ratio to meet the needs of the patients and facilitate the recovery process. The discussed four variables; nurse staffing, patient mortality, nurse burnout, and patient mortality. Research Data analysis for demographic variables

The study used a cross-sectional survey to analyze data of 10184 registered nurses and 232342 patients discharged from the hospital between the year 1998 and 1999 in Pennsylvania. It was evident from the study that hospitals with high-patient ratio have an increased mortality rate and inability rescue patients. Also, nurses work for longer hours, hence increasing burnout which causes an increase in job dissatisfaction. Research Data analysis for demographic variables

Aiken et al. (2012) sought to investigate the effects that nursing staffing has on three variables; job dissatisfaction, nurse burnout, and quality of patient care services. The study used a cross-sectional survey to analyze 10319 nurses working under the surgical unit in 303 hospitals. The study analyzed nursing staffing in terms of the shifts of the nurses and number of patients under their care. According to the study, nursing practice is dependent on the working environment which is influenced by the organizational support of the nursing practice.

Organization management influences the decision-making process and attributes that impact on the practice of nursing. For example, an organization that supports the nursing practice will implement strategies aimed at improving the nursing working environment. Research Data analysis for demographic variables

The study used a four-point scale to determine the satisfaction of the nurses. The scale ranged from highly dissatisfied to highly satisfied nurses. Furthermore, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used in the study to measure the burnout level. It was evident that majority of the nurses indicated scores between 0 and 54. For nursing practitioner score above 27 are considered as high from the scale. In analyzing the quality of patient care was analyzed using a four-point scale from poor to excellent. Majority of the nurses indicated the fair or poor quality of patient care services.

However, nursing burnouts scores differed according to the jurisdiction. Pennsylvania indicated the highest scores of 54% compared to Scotland with 34%. In all the jurisdictions, it is evident that nursing shortage and quality of services affects the nursing practice hence increasing the dissatisfaction of nurses. Research Data analysis for demographic variables

It is the responsibility of the nurses to identify critical issues and the use of the evidence-based practices in the treatment of patients (Barton, 2013). The quality of services according to the article is dependent on the best research and the ability of the nurses to deliver these services in an effective manner. All the stakeholders such as policy makers, patients and family members, and nurses have a role to play in promoting quality of patient care.

Developing a positive relationship and collaboration of all the stakeholders is an essential factor in improving the quality of patient care services. This process may lead to decreased fatigue and stress among the nursing profession hence improving the job satisfaction which increases the retention rate of nurses. Research Data analysis for demographic variables

The quality of patient care services and improvement of the working environment is dependent on the culture of the health institutions. If the management supports the nursing practice, they will put in place strategies to improve the working conditions of nurses. A better working environment will motivate nurses hence increasing the skills and experience. Quality of patient care is achieved when nurses are fully motivated.

There are technological changes in the field of medicine. Therefore, continuous training is essential in improving quality of services in nursing practice. It enables the registered nurses to keep abreast with the changing needs and the application of current technology to enhance the quality of services. Research Data analysis for demographic variables

McHugh & Ma (2014) conducted a study to determine how compensation, working environment, and staffing levels on the outcome of nurses. The study analyzed nurses from different healthcare institutions to determine how the different variables impact on the outcome in nursing practice. The study found out that health institutions with adequate staff and improved working environment had best nursing outcomes.

Nursing in such environment indicated reduced burnout, increased job satisfaction, and increased ability to continue working for the institution over a long period of time. The study employed a cross-sectional survey to investigate how the variables impact on the nursing outcome. Research Data analysis for demographic variables

According to the findings of the study, it was evident that compensation plan adopted by the hospital has an influence job satisfaction and retention rate. For example, nurses working in health institutions with competitive wages and benefits indicated a high level of satisfaction and ability to continue working for the hospital in future as compared to the hospital with fewer benefits and wages. However, wages did not have an effect on the burnout rate.

Therefore, wages have an influence on nurses’ outcome but do not impact on the working environment and staffing outcomes. The working environment and reduced nurse-patient ratio have an effect on the nurse outcomes. Research Data analysis for demographic variables

Koy et al. (2017) provided empirical evidence on the relationship between nursing care quality, nurse satisfaction, and burnout in the turbulent environment. The current industry of health demands that hospitals should be a learning institution in order to keep up with the trends and technological changes. The nursing practice in the current environment is seen as multi-dimensional and multi-facet. Therefore, the complexity in the nursing practice has led to the evolvement in the nursing practice to improve the quality of patient care. Quality of care has also become complex due to globalization. Research Data analysis for demographic variables

Quality patient care demands provision of patient-centered care to patients and family members. It also requires meeting the needs of the patient in an effective manner. Therefore, nursing professionals have to deal with the complex cultural practices in the field of nursing. To achieve this goal, staffing is an essential tool. It was evident from the study that there is a relationship between nursing staffing, satisfaction, working environment, burnout, and retention rate.

Working environment enhances job satisfaction and reduces nursing burnout while increasing the ability of nurses to work for the health institution over a long period of time. The management has a role to play in influencing working conditions through policies that are essential to improve the motivation of the workforce and increase retention rate. Research Data analysis for demographic variables

Conclusion

Kane et al. (2012) in their study found that even though there are different tools used in the measurement of the quality of patient care, nurse satisfaction, burnout, and retention rate; the complexity in measuring the quality of patient care is still a challenge to the researchers. It is hard to quantify the quality of healthcare services to determine the impact that the three variables; nursing satisfaction, burnout, and retention rate. Research Data analysis for demographic variables

There are also other factors that affect the nursing satisfaction which is not covered in the literature review. It is evident from the literature review that working environment and burnout impacts on nursing practices and quality of services. However, compensation and benefits increase the motivational level and retention rate but have no impact on burnout and working condition.

Research Data analysis for demographic variables References

  1. Aiken, L. H., Clarke, S. P., Sloane, D. M., & International Hospital Outcomes Research Consortium. (2012). Hospital staffing, organization, and quality of care: cross-national findings. International Journal for quality in Health care, 14(1), 5-14.
  2. Aiken, L. H., Clarke, S. P., Sloane, D. M., Sochalski, J., & Silber, J. H. (2012). Hospital nurse staffing and patient mortality, nurse burnout, and job dissatisfaction. Jamal288(16), 1987-1993.
  3. Barton, A. (2013). Patient safety and quality: an evidence-based handbook for nurses. Aorn Journal90(4), 601-602.
  4. Kane, R. L., Shamliyan, T., Mueller, C., Duval, S., & Wilt, T. J. (2012). Nurse staffing and quality of patient care. Evidence Rep Technology Assess (Full Rep), 151, 1-115.
  5. Koy, V., Yunibhand, J., Angsuroch, Y., & Fisher, M. L. (2017). Relationship between nursing care quality, nurse staffing, nurse job satisfaction, nurse practice environment, and burnout: literature review. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences3(8), 1825-1831.
  6. McHugh, M. D., & Ma, C. (2014). Wage, work environment, and staffing: effects on nurse outcomes. Policy, Politics, & Nursing Practice15(3-4), 72-80.

W3-2 Research Data analysis for demographic variables

Staffing and the Effect on Retention and Patient Care

Background of the Study

Staffing is a critical area not only in retention of nursing practitioners but also the provision of quality patient care services in the health sector. The enactment of the Affordable Care Act led to changes in health care practices that require nurses to provide quality care services that incorporate the needs of the patients. Different factors impact on the outcome of nurses in their efforts to provide quality care services. Staffing is an essential factor in facilitating provision of patient-centered care in the field of nursing. Inadequate staffing and nursing burnout are the two moral ethical dilemma issues that are facing nursing in the healthcare sectors.

Therefore, this factors impact on the job satisfaction of nurses hence affecting the motivational level and retention of nurses. In many cases, health institutions adopt voluntary or mandatory overtime practices a factor that leads to nursing burnout and reduced quality of healthcare services. Maintaining optimal staff levels of a registered nurse can lead to improved patient care and retention of the nursing staff hence improving the quality of services (Knudson, Research Data analysis for demographic variables 2013).

Statement of the Problem

Nursing staffing is a sought-out topic both in the academic field and by industry practitioners. The introduction of ACA led to the demand of quality patient care services in the healthcare industry. To meet the industry demands, healthcare institutions have to put in place strategies for retaining their nurses and reducing the nurse-patient ratio. The nurses have to use the available resources including personnel to provide the required patient care services. Research Data analysis for demographic variables

The standards of practice for nursing practitioners requires that nurses provide all the relevant material data during the diagnosis process that will aid the patient in making informed consent on the treatment plan to adopt (Kane et al., 2007). Also, the patients have a civil right to receive quality services. The changes in technology also have impacted on the patient care. Therefore, there is a gap for studying the staffing and the effect on retention and patient care services. Research Data analysis for demographic variables

Significance of the Study

The study will not only contribute to the theory building on the concept of nursing staffing but also used as a theoretical reference by both the state and federal governments when making laws in the healthcare sector. The study is also significant in that it will contribute to the existing literature and establish gaps for further studies for academicians. Research Data analysis for demographic variables

The findings in the study help in decision-making in both the private and public sector on the standards of practice essential in promoting the quality of healthcare services and promotion of patient-centered care. Also, healthcare institutions may use the findings from the study to put in place strategies on how to retain their workforce in order to reduce nursing burnout. Research Data analysis for demographic variables

Purpose of the Study

The overall purpose of the study is to determine the staffing and the effect on retention and patient care. The study aims at determining the relationship between patient safety initiative and the nursing staffing. Also, the study aims at analyzing the nursing workload and its impact on the job satisfaction of nurses. Lastly, the study will discuss the strategies for improvement to ensure retention of nurses and improvement of quality services. Research Data analysis for demographic variables

Research Questions, Hypothesis, and Variables with Operational Definitions

The general research question is; what is the effect of staffing on the retention and patient care? The specific questions of the study include:

  1. What are the challenges of nurse staffing?
  2. What is the effect of nursing burnout on the satisfaction level of nurses?
  3. What are the challenges facing healthcare institutions in achieving the desired staff levels?

The null and alternative hypothesis of the study:

H1: Staffing has an effect on the retention and patient care.

H0: Staffing has no effect on the retention and patient care.

Research Data analysis for demographic variables Study Variables

The independent variable of the study is staffing whereas the dependent variables are retention and patient care. The staffing level in nursing practice has been a point of concern for many decades in the healthcare sector. Staffing is operationally defined as the number of skilled registered nurses in a healthcare institution that have the ability to provide quality patient care services to the patient. It refers to the employees in the healthcare that facilitate the provision of quality services.

Quality services require an optimal nursing level and mix. Staffing is not only about the numbers of nurses but the mix of the required skills. Adequate nursing is appropriate in the reduction of the nursing burnout to improve motivation level and quality of services (Stanton & Stanton, Research Data analysis for demographic variables 2004).

Retention refers to the ability of healthcare organizations to be able to motivate the nurses in order to make them continue working for the organization over a long period of time. Different factors such as working environment and compensation impact on the ability to retain an employee (Holden et al., Research Data analysis for demographic variables 2011).

Therefore, it is the responsibility of the healthcare institution to improve the working conditions to retain their workforce. The importance of retaining a workforce in healthcare is the ability to use the experiences of the nurses in providing quality services and maintain the required staff mix.

Quality of services is the ability of healthcare institution to provide services that meet the needs of patients and incorporate these needs into their treatment plan so as to meet the demands and expectations of both the patient and family members. For an organization to provide quality services, healthcare institutions have to have the adequate nursing staff to reduce nursing burnout. Quality services are dependent on factors such as skills of nurses, adequate resources, and adequate staffing. Research Data analysis for demographic variables

Research Data analysis for demographic variables References

  1. Holden, R. J., Scanlon, M. C., Patel, N. R., Kaushal, R., Escoto, K. H., Brown, R. L., & Karsh, B. T. (2013). A human factors framework and study of the effect of nursing workload on patient safety and employee quality of working life. Quality and Safety in Health Care20(1), 15-24.
  2. Kane, R. L., Shamliyan, T. A., Mueller, C., Duval, S., & Wilt, T. J. (2013). The association of registered nurse staffing levels and patient outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis. Medical care45(12), 1195-1204.
  3. Knudson, L. (2013). Nurse staffing levels linked to patient outcomes, nurse retention. Nurse Staff97(1), 7-9.
  4. Stanton, M. W., & Stanton, M. W. (2015). Hospital nurse staffing and quality of care. Rockville: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

Research Data analysis for demographic variables Nursing Research: Methodology

The sample setting for the research is critical since it determines the results and proves of disapproves the hypothesis. This clinical problem affects patient outcomes and the quality of care delivery. For this study, the sample study of the research includes research previously done on the issue. Systematic reviews form eight databases such as Psych Net, Elsevier, the Nursing journal and other databases.

These samples are qualitative and will provide the research with the information required to reflect the extent of the problem and some for the ways available to rectify it. In choosing the method of study, the quantitative methods were picked. A literature review and a case study where the main forms used in the collection of the data. Research Data analysis for demographic variables

The list of literature used is credible since all the sources were medical journals written after thorough research. The inclusion criteria for the sample data will be based on three factors. The first one is the date which will be between January 2000 and December 2016. On the other hand, the samples have to be within the parameters described by the PICOT statement for them to be included.

The sampling strategy will include randomized and non-randomized trials such that the research is well supplemented. The study utilized two main quantitative methods including multivariable and multilevel logistic regression. These two are statistical methods used to collect and analyze data. Multilevel logistic regression is helpful when researching about a large number of participants at one level. The correlation was found between the nurses and the survival rate such that the higher the number of nurses in a hospital the higher the survival rates. Research Data analysis for demographic variables

Research Data analysis for demographic variables References

  1. Frederickson, W. (2013). Nurses Are Exposing the Reality: Patients Are At Risk. Minnesota Nursing Accent, 5-7.
  2. Rep. Schakowsky, J. D.-I.-9. (2017, May 5). H.R.2392 – Nurse Staffing Standards for Hospital
  3. Patient Safety and Quality Care Act of 2017. Retrieved from Congress.gov: https://www.congress.gov/bill/115th-congress/house-bill/2392
  4. Tellez, M., & Ann Seago, J. (2013). California Nurse Staffing Law and RN Workforce Changes. Nursing Economic$, 18-26.

Research Data analysis for demographic variables Methodology

Research Data analysis for demographic variables Controlling Extraneous Variables

With the care standards and many patients that a nurse has to take care off at a particular time, there is a great potential for the nurse to commit errors which can lead to the death of the patients. This results in a lot of extraneous variables (Frederickson, 2013). These variables include the care which a patient may require such as after discharge care and the challenges with the medication. The expected outcome should be selected. Research Data analysis for demographic variables

Research Data analysis for demographic variables The Instruments to be used

The study will make the use of the standard based Consensus of the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN). This technique is a reliable in the measurement of concepts such as the experience of a patient in the quality of hospital care (Tellez & Ann Seago, 2013). The checklist will be used in a combination of Utility Index Matrix which will enable the grouping and comparison of variables obtained from other similar instruments. Research Data analysis for demographic variables

This research involves having the knowledge and a clear understanding of the important characteristics of the patient an effective implementation (Frederickson, 2013). The reinforcement of self-care practices is important in helping the patients to manage the after discharge care. The recommended guidelines for the study involves the education of the patients, who will act as respondents for this research. The patient education will be coordinated to include visual aids and written instructions.

Research Data analysis for demographic variables Descriptions of the Instrument

The knowledge of how the instruments were used in the collection of data from the patient is important in the assessment of the measurement of errors and the risk to establish if the testing was sufficient. The administration of questionnaire has the potential of some errors because the patients can have problems in recalling their experience over a long time (Tellez & Ann Seago, Research Data analysis for demographic variables 2013). To measure the prompt of a nurse care to a patient, a testing will be made to determine the stability of the instrument.

The Validity and Reliability of Estimates

The research will involve the examination of the reliability and validity of estimates using the technique of COSMIN checklist. This will be done in four steps. The first step will involve the selection of the properties which are being studied (Rep. Schakowsky, 2017). The second step will involve the statistical methods which are used in collection and analysis of the data. The third step includes the application of the appropriate checklist in accordance with the results of step one.

This checklist has important questions to rate the quality of the methodology used. In the final step, the general results obtained from step one will be completed. The classification of the studies of the instruments will then be grouped as either positive, negative or indeterminate. Research Data analysis for demographic variables

Research Data analysis for demographic variables Description of the Intervention

The nursing staff will be assessed according to their bedside handoff and their practice. The bedside handoff will be included as the competence and service delivery of the nursing staff. The accountability of the staff will be assessing the policy of practice change and noncompliance (Frederickson, Research Data analysis for demographic variables 2013). These variables will be subjected to the improvement of individual performance which can affect the results of the study.

Research Data analysis for demographic variables Procedure of Data Collection

The procedure of data collection will involve the HCAHPS in the generation of surveys. To improve compliance, the nurses will be reminded of the BSH and the huddles of the shift through the shift (Rep. Schakowsky, 2017). The patients will receive the HCAHPS survey by the means of telephone calls and frequent mailing. The data is expected to be collected a month before and after the implementation of the BSH. The compliance of nursing staff will be obtained through direct observation from different units.

Research Data analysis for demographic variables References

  1. Frederickson, W. (2013). Nurses Are Exposing the Reality: Patients Are At Risk. Minnesota Nursing Accent, 5-7.
  2. Patient Safety and Quality Care Act of 2017. Retrieved from Congress.gov: https://www.congress.gov/bill/115th-congress/house-bill/2392
  3. Tellez, M., & Ann Seago, J. (2013). California Nurse Staffing Law and RN Workforce Changes. Nursing Economic$, 18-26.
  4. Rep. Schakowsky, J. D.-I.-9. (2017, May 5). H.R.2392 – Nurse Staffing Standards for Hospital
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