PRINCIPLES OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Assignment Week 4

PRINCIPLES OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Assignment Week 4

PRINCIPLES OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Assignment Week 4

Define endemic, epidemic, and pandemic, and provide an example of each. Describe a current epidemic. Describe one example of each of the prevention types (primary, secondary, and tertiary) that could be applied to control the epidemic.

DQ2

Discuss the role the CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) plays in conveying public health information and recommendations. Describe the type of data and information provided by the MMWR. Choose a report posted within the last 2 years from the “Publications – Weekly Report” tab. Provide a brief summary of the disease report, including the natural history and mode of transmission, and whether the report is an example of descriptive epidemiology or analytical epidemiology.

RESOURCES

Read Chapters 1, 2, and 6 in Gordis Epidemiology.

Read “Smoking and Carcinoma of the Lung,” by Doll and Hill, from British Medical Journal (1950). URL: https://www-ncbi-nlm-nih-gov.lopes.idm.oclc.org/pmc/articles/PMC2038856/pdf/brmedj03566-0003.pdf

Read “The Training of Epidemiologists and Diversity in Epidemiology: Findings from the 2006 Congress of Epidemiology Survey,” by Carter-Pokras et al., from Annals of Epidemiology (2009). URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/science/article/pii/S104727970900060X

Watch “Epidemiology the Backbone of Public Health,” by Greg Martin (2017), located on the YouTube website. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S5XRh47T420

Read “The Framingham Study: ITS 50-Year Legacy and Future Promise,” by Kannel, from Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (2000). URL: https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jat1994/6/2/6_2_60/_pdf

ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED, PLAGIARISM-FREE PAPERS

Read “Epidemiological Background and Design: The Framingham Study,” located on the Framingham Heart Study website. URL: https://www.framinghamheartstudy.org/fhs-about/history/epidemiological-background/

Read “Epidemiological Approaches to Heart Disease: The Framingham Study,” by Dawber, Meadors, and Moore, from American Journal of Public Health (1951). URL:http://scholar.google.com/scholar_url?url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1525365/pdf/amjphnation00421-0020.pdf&hl=en&sa=X&scisig=AAGBfm10VqiSJ6tLAYY0TMfm15VR8M93MA&nossl=1&oi=scholarr

View “Global Disease Detectives,” by the Center for Global Health (2013), located on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website. URL: https://www.cdc.gov/cdctv/dataandstatistics/disease-detectives.html

Read “Section 2: Historical Evolution of Epidemiology,” from Lesson 1 of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) self-study course, Principles of Epidemiology in Public Health Practice (2012), located on the CDC website. URL:https://www.cdc.gov/csels/dsepd/ss1978/lesson1/section2.html

Explore the CDC Current Outbreak List page of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website. URL: https://www.cdc.gov/outbreaks/index.html

Explore the Epidemic Intelligence Service page of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website. URL: https://www.cdc.gov/eis/index.html

Explore the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), located on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website. URL: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/index.html

UNIT 2

DQ1

Disease surveillance is a necessary public health role. Passive surveillance relies on individuals and local authorities “pushing” information to national agencies who then compile, analyze, and disseminate the information. Unfortunately, significant gaps occur in reporting.

Review your textbook, and the CDC’s National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS). Discuss the strengths of the current surveillance systems, the gaps you identified, and why these gaps occur. Discuss the global challenges of coordinating surveillance between multiple countries and provide an example highlighting the challenges. What could other governments and agencies, such as the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, do to strengthen global disease surveillance systems?

DQ2

Explain the importance of validity and reliability in diagnostic testing or research. Describe how validity relates to sensitivity and specificity in diagnostic testing. Identify a health screen specific to a diagnostic test that is currently being debated regarding its use, recommended ages, or frequency, and discuss how validity and reliability play into this debate. What other factors should you consider when you assess the recommendations for a diagnostic test or screen?

STUDY MATERIALS

Read Chapters 3-5 and 18 in Gordis Epidemiology.

Read “Types of Surveillance,” located on the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine website. URL:http://conflict.lshtm.ac.uk/page_75.htm

Read “WHO Report on Global Surveillance of Epidemic-Prone Infectious Diseases – Introduction,” located on the World Health Organization (WHO) website. URL: https://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/introduction/en/ PRINCIPLES OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Assignment Week 4

Read “CDC 24-7 Fact of the Week,” located on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website. URL:https://www.cdc.gov/about/facts/index.html?CDC_AA_refVal=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Fabout%2Ffacts%2Fcdcfastfacts%2Fsurveillance.html

Read “Two by Two Tables,” by Sullivan, Dean, and Pezzullo, from OpenEpi: Open Source Epidemiologic Statistics for Public Health (2013), located on the OpenEpi website. URL: http://www.openepi.com/TwobyTwo/TwobyTwo.htm

Read “Goodness of Measurement: Reliability and Validity,” by Bajpai and Bajpai, from International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health (2014). URL: https://www.ejmanager.com/mnstemps/67/67-1380953319.pdf

Use the “Compendium of Acute Foodborne and Waterborne Diseases,” located on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website, to assist in completing the Oswego Outbreak Case History assignment. URL: https://www.cdc.gov/eis/casestudies/xoswego.401.303.compendium.pdf

View “How to Create an Epidemic Curve,” by Martin (2016), located on the YouTube website. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dn84ezAzV4k

View “Know How to Interpret an Epidemic Curve?” by Martin (2017), located on the YouTube website. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7SM4PN7Yg1s

Explore the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) page of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website. URL: https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/

Explore Public Health Surveillance and Data page of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website. URL: https://www.cdc.gov/surveillance/

UNIT 3

DQ1

Differentiate between bias and confounding. Discuss the criteria necessary to establish a factor as a confounder and provide an example applying these criteria. What is one way to adjust for a confounding relationship in the study design or the analysis?

DQ2

Explain the two major types of bias. Identify a peer-reviewed epidemiology article that discusses potential issues with bias as a limitation and discuss what could have been done to minimize the bias (exclude articles that combine multiple studies such as meta-analysis and systemic review articles). What are the implications of making inferences based on data with bias? Include a link to the article in your reference.

STUDY MATERIALS

Read Chapters 14 and 15 in Gordis Epidemiology.

Read “Association or Causation: Evaluating Links Between ‘Environment and Disease,'” by Lucas and McMichael (2005), located on the World Health Organization website. URL: https://www-ncbi-nlm-nih-gov.lopes.idm.oclc.org/pmc/articles/PMC2626424/pdf/16283057.pdf

Read “Weak Associations in Epidemiology: Importance, Detection, and Interpretation,” by Doll, from Journal of Epidemiology (1996). URL: https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jea1991/6/4sup/6_4sup_11/_pdf

Read “Causal Inference Based on Counterfactuals,” by Hofler (2005), located on the BioMed Central website. URL: https://bmcmedresmethodol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2288-5-28

Read “Multicausality: Confounding,” by Schoenbach (2004), located on the Epidemilog.net website. URL: http://www.epidemiolog.net/evolving/Multicausality-Confounding.pdf

View “Sensitivity and Specificity – Explained in 3 Minutes,” by Martin (2014), located on the YouTube website. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FnJ3L-63Cf8

View “The Relationship Between Incidence and Prevalence,” by Patwari (2013), located on the YouTube website. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1jzZe3ORdd8

Use the “Creating a 2×2 Contingency Table” resource to assist with the completion of the Measuring Morbidity: Prevalence and Incidence assignment, as needed.

PRINCIPLES OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Assignment Week 4

mersin escmersin esc