Leadership and Change Assignment
Leadership and Change Assignment
Module 1 – Case
LEADERSHIP TRAITS, BEHAVIORS, AND STYLES
Leadership and Change Assignment Overview
All of you have probably read quite a bit about the world’s wealthiest man—Bill Gates. But some of you are probably not nearly as familiar with Bill Gates’s main rival and world’s seventh wealthiest man—former Oracle CEO Larry Ellison. Ellison recently retired as CEO but is still active as the chair of Oracle’s board of directors. Unlike Gates, who is relatively reserved, Ellison is known for his extravagant lifestyle and boastful interviews.
The rivalry between Ellison and Gates is legendary, but not quite as much is known about Ellison’s leadership style. He has been described as a “jerk,” and his managerial style has been described as “take no prisoners.” While he is unquestionably a very strong leader, he has also been criticized for spending a lot of time playing golf while leaving many leadership duties to his subordinates.
For this assignment, read up on leadership traits, leadership behaviors, and leadership styles in the required background materials. Then read up on Larry Ellison and find as much as you can about his personality and leadership style. Finally, try to apply what you’ve read in the required background materials about leadership traits, behaviors, and styles to what you found out about Larry Ellison.
Here are some articles to get you started on your research about Ellison:
Mendleson, R. (2010, November 8). Why it pays to be a jerk. Canadian Business, 83, 28-30, 32, 34. [ProQuest]
Leibovich, M. (2000, October 30). The outsider, his business and his billions series. The Washington Post, p. A1. [ProQuest]
Hymowitz, C. (2005, July 12). Working fewer hours is hard for most CEOs, but some find a way. Wall Street Journal, p. B1. [ProQuest]
Watch the following video:
Once you are finished with your research on Ellison and have thoroughly reviewed the background materials on leadership traits, behaviors, and styles, write a 4- to 5-page paper addressing the questions below. For each answer, make sure to cite at least one of the Case Assignment articles listed on this page as well as one of the required textbook chapters from the background materials—for example, Hiriyappa (2009), or Bauer and Erdogan (2012).
1. How would you describe Ellison’s personality and leadership traits? Refer to the specific leadership traits discussed in Hiriyappa (2009) or Bauer and Erdogan (2012).
2. Would you describe Ellison’s behavior as being task-oriented, or people/relationship-oriented? Refer to Hiriyappa (2009) and Bauer and Erdogan (2012).
3. How would you describe Ellison’s leadership style? Consider the leadership styles discussed in the “Types of Leaders/Leadership Styles” section of Chapter 10 of Hiriyappa (2010).
• Follow the assignment instructions closely and follow all steps listed in the instructions.
• Stay focused on the precise assignment questions; don’t go off on tangents or devote a lot of space to summarizing general background materials
• List supporting references and cite sources in proper format.
• Use appropriate writing style in essay form (organization, grammar, and spelling).
• Include both a bibliography and in-text citations. See the Student Guide to Writing a High-Quality Academic Paper, including pages 11-14 on in-text citations. Another resource is the “Writing Style Guide,” which is found under “My Resources” in the TLC portal
Leadership and Change Assignment Module 1 – SLP
LEADERSHIP TRAITS, BEHAVIORS, AND STYLES
For the Session Long Project you will be applying the concepts in the background materials to your own personal experiences in the workplace. For this first SLP assignment you will choose a supervisor that you personally worked for and got to know well, and compare and contrast this supervisor’s leadership characteristics with your own personal leadership characteristics using the concepts from the required background materials. Carefully reflect on your supervisor’s traits, behaviors, and leadership styles. Then write a 2- to 3-page paper addressing the following issues:
1. Overall, is your current role more of a leadership or a management role? How about your supervisor? Are they a manager or leader? Refer to the section on “Differences between Leadership and Management” in Chapter 10 of Hiriyappa (2010).
2. What key differences in leadership traits do you see between yourself and your supervisor? Refer to specific leadership traits discussed in the required textbook chapters.
3. What key differences in leadership behaviors do you see between yourself and your supervisor? Refer to the concepts of being task-oriented, or people-centered/relationship-oriented that are discussed in the required background materials.
4. How would you compare your own leadership style with that of your supervisor? Consider leadership styles discussed in the background text materials such as autocratic style, participative/democratic style, and laissez-faire/free-rein style.
Module 2 – Case
ONE SIZE DOESN’T FIT ALL: SITUATIONAL APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP
For this assignment, first review the background materials with a focus on Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership model. Make sure you are familiar with the four leadership styles covered in the situational approach including Directing, Coaching, Supporting, and Delegating and situations where you are supposed to use these four styles.
Also, familiarize yourself with the more complex Path-Goal model and Fiedler’s Contingency model. You don’t need to know these two models in as much detail as the Situational model to complete this assignment, but make sure you understand the main idea of these models as well as some of their main advantages and disadvantages. Leadership and Change Assignment
1. For each of the following situations, explain which of the four leadership styles covered in the Situational model should be used and explain your reasoning with references to Chapter 4 of Avery (2011) and at least one other required reading from the background materials:
A. You are in charge of a team of architects. They are highly skilled but have strong opinions and do not necessarily follow instructions. These architects are independent thinkers who are used to doing things their own way.
B. You are in charge of a fast-food restaurant. The employees are all teenagers who have not yet graduated from high school, and this is the first job for most of them.
C. You are the supervisor of a team of software engineers. They are all highly skilled and highly motivated, and are used to working independently. All of them believe in the mission of the company.
2. Each of the three models (Situational, Fielder Contingency, Path-Goal) covered in this module involves both “inputs” and “outputs.” For example, Situational Leadership involves taking employee commitment and competency as inputs and then—based on the employee information—choosing Directing, Coaching, Supporting, or Delegating as an output. Create a table comparing and contrasting the three models in terms of inputs and outputs, and include a 1- or 2-paragraph discussion of your table.
3. Based on your table in Part 2 above and the readings, which of the three models do you think is most useful? Take into consideration both its ability to adapt leadership styles to realistic situations you may face, as well as ease of use of the model.
Leadership and Change Assignment Module 2 – SLP
ONE SIZE DOESN’T FIT ALL: SITUATIONAL APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP
For the Module 2 SLP assignment you will continue to apply the concepts from the background materials to your own personal experiences in the workplace. Think carefully about Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership model and the four leadership styles of Directing, Coaching, Supporting, and Delegating. Then consider the styles of one or more of the supervisors you have worked with, and reflect upon whether or not their style changed depending on the situation.
After doing some reflecting on your own experiencing and reviewing the background materials, write a 2- to 3-page paper addressing the following issues:
1. Take a look at the four developmental levels D1-D4 discussed in Avery (2004). Which of these levels best describes the developmental level of your supervisor’s full team?
2. How would you describe the tasks required of your supervisor’s full team? Are they structured or unstructured?
3. Overall, how well does your supervisor’s leadership style match with the developmental level of their team and the characteristics of the team’s tasks? Consider the Situational Leadership model for developmental level and the Path-Goal model for task characteristics in your answer.
4. Based on either the Situational Leadership or Path-Goal model, do you have any recommendations for how your supervisor could change their leadership style? Leadership and Change Assignment
Module 3 – Case
CHANGE-ORIENTED LEADERSHIP: TRANSFORMATIONAL AND CHARISMATIC LEADERS
Travis Kalanick was the founding CEO of the ride-sharing giant Uber. Under his leadership, Uber has become a globally successful firm with a valuation over $60 billion. Kalanick is in his early forties, but Uber is the third firm that he started. Earlier in his career he founded the file-sharing company Scour which ended up going bankrupt due to lawsuits. He had more success with another file-sharing company called Red Swoosh which he later sold for $19 million.
In spite of all of his accomplishments and success, he has always been a controversial CEO. Recently he was caught on video berating an Uber driver, a video that went viral. He has also faced allegations of fostering a toxic corporate culture. After facing a continuing wave of negative publicity, Kalanick had to step aside as CEO, but remains as a powerful member of Uber’s Board of Directors. He is also still one of their major shareholders, so even though another CEO will be managing the day-to-day, affairs he is likely to remain as a major leader within Uber. Leadership and Change Assignment
For this paper you should first thoroughly review the background readings and make sure you are clear on the distinction between charismatic, transformational, and transactional leadership. Then do some research on Travis Kalanick’s leadership style. There is no shortage of articles about Travis Kalanick and Uber. But harder to find are articles on what kind of leader he is and how he leads his employees. Here are a few articles to get you started, but if you can find articles that are more recent or have more information about his leadership style, feel free to use them in your paper instead:
Hook, L. (2017, March 10). Uber: The crisis inside the “cult of Travis.” Financial Times, p. 11. [ProQuest]
Somerville, H. (2017, April 13). Uber CEO’s iron grip poses challenge in COO search. Reuters. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-uber-governance/uber-ceos-iron-grip-poses-challenge-in-coo-search-idUSKBN17F1CO?il=0
Fast Company. (2015, September 25). Travis Kalanick, the fall and spectacular rise of the man behind Uber. South China Morning Post. Retrieved from http://www.scmp.com/magazines/post-magazine/article/1860723/travis-kalanick-fall-and-spectacular-rise-man-behind-uber
After you have reviewed the background materials and done some research on Travis Kalanick, write a 4- to 5-page paper addressing the issues below. Make sure to cite both required background readings such as Barine and Minja (2012) or Luthans et al. (2015) as well as specific articles on Travis Kalanick.
1. Does Travis Kalanick meet the definition of a charismatic leader based on what you’ve read? Explain your answer using both the required background textbook readings as well as specific information you found about Kalanick.
2. Does Travis Kalanick meet the definition of a transformational leader based on what you’ve read? Explain your answer using both the required background textbook readings as well as specific information you found about Kalanick.
3. Does Travis Kalanick meet the definition of a transactional leader based on what you’ve read? Explain your answer using both the required background textbook readings as well as specific information you found about Kalanick.
4. Overall, what do you believe are the main benefits and drawbacks of Travis Kalanick’s approach to leadership? Do you think he needs to make major changes in his leadership style?
Leadership and Change Assignment Module 3 – SLP
CHANGE-ORIENTED LEADERSHIP: TRANSFORMATIONAL AND CHARISMATIC LEADERS
For the Module 3 SLP assignment you will be again be applying the concepts from the background materials to your own personal experiences. You can write about the same supervisor you wrote about in Modules 1 and 2, or choose a different supervisor that you worked with and got to know well.
Carefully review the concepts and definitions of charismatic, transformational, and transactional leadership. Then write a 2- to 3-page paper addressing the following issues using specific examples from your personal experiences:
1. Describe a situation you experienced in the workplace when a current or past supervisor used a transformational or charismatic approach to motivate their employees. Was it effective?
2. Describe a situation you experienced in the workplace when a current or past supervisor used a transactional approach to motivate their employees. Was it effective?
3. Based on what you’ve read for this class so far as well as from your own experience working with different supervisors, do you think transformational and charismatic leadership can be learned or do you think it something you are born with? To support your answer, use both of the following: your personal experiences and references from the required background materials.
Module 4 – Case
MANAGING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
For this assignment, first, do a thorough review of the required background materials and read up on each author’s discussion about Kotter’s eight-step model of change, Lewin’s three-step model, and the five phases involved in action research. All of the authors discuss at least one of these models. There are also some videos on some of these models that might help.
When you are done reviewing these models of organizational change, take a look at the following scenario, determine which of the three models of change would be most appropriate, and answer the questions below. You are required to use APA style of writing, cite at least three of the scholarly sources from the background readings (required and optional), and write between 4 and 5 pages (excluding title and references page).
A corporation has had recent problems with increased turnover of employees and decreased profitability. However, nobody is sure exactly what the problem is or what to do about it. Senior managers have been arguing for many months about what to do, but it is clear nobody is being objective or has a clear idea about what to do to get the company back on track. The company (prior to organizational changes) had 24 sales associates that averaged $423,000 (combined) in sales each month with a profit margin of 32% from an average customer base monthly of 350 people purchasing an average of 12 items per receipt.
Since the changeover, the employees are stretched thin and have become demoralized as management has been slow to respond to the turnover but has increased pressure to exceed monthly goals. The average monthly sales have steadily decreased for the six months after the new CEO replaced the vice president of sales, two sales directors, and six sales managers with employees from another organization. These directors and managers have yet to establish relationships, are not very engaging or motivating, have more of a transactional style of leadership, and micromanage every detail to ensure sales goals are met. The following table shows company sales performance since January of this year and includes average sales, number of staff, average items per receipt, and profit margin. Leadership and Change Assignment
Month Number of
Sales Staff Sales/Rounded Profit Items
January 20 $322,800 28% 5
February 19 $321,100 23% 3
March 18 $323,500 22% 6
April 18 $267,900 24% 5
May 15 $260,500 26% 4
June 12 $247,700 23% 6
Please use the scenario and the table to answer the following questions (support each section with sources from the required and optional readings list):
1. Introduce your paper with your thoughts on the scenario and why it happened.
2. Explain which organizational change model would be most suited for this scenario using at least one of the required background readings. Support your response with a source from the required or optional readings list.
3. Provide a solution to the scenario and build a plan of action for this organization using the individual steps of the chosen change model.
4. Use the table above to support your solution and build new potential monthly results for July through December.
5. Conclude your paper to align with your introduction, a summary of findings from each section, and wrap up in a final thought.
Your submission will include:
• Case Assignments are to be prepared in Microsoft Word and should be 3-4 pages in length, in addition to a cover page (course name and number, module number, session name, student name, and date prepared) and reference list (double-spaced, 12 pt. type, Times New Roman font). The paper should include a 2- to 3-sentence introduction, body, and 2- to 3-sentence conclusion in addition to Trident University International’s cover page and a reference list page in APA format.
• Report content should include a brief introduction to the assignment, background information about the organization being studied, the organizational chart, and your discussion of organizational structure in terms of the concepts or theories being applied in the assignment.
• Use subtitles, bullets, and tables to improve presentation values.
• Attention is to be given to citing sources of information in-text as well as in the reference list at the end of reports. Citation and reference style instructions are available at https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/.
• Submit your report in the Case dropbox for this module on or before the date due, as indicated in the TLC Homepage.
• Since you are engaging in research, be sure to cite and reference the sources in APA format. The paper should be written in third person; this means words like “I,” “we,” and “you” are not appropriate. For more information, see Differences Between First and Third Person.
Support your research with three references that include at least one reference from a peer-reviewed academic journal or textbook found in Trident University’s online library.
Submit the presentation through the appropriate Dropbox by the due date. Your submission will be graded with the assignment’s grading rubric.
Grading Note: Students’ Quantitative Reasoning skills were assessed in the Signature Assignment in Case 3 of MGT301 at the Introduction Level. In this Case Assignment, they will be assessed in a second Signature Assignment at the Reinforced Level of Quantitative Reasoning. Toward the end of the program, they will be assessed again in MGT423 with the Emphasized Level of Quantitative Reasoning skills. Leadership and Change Assignment
Your submission for this Signature Assignment will be assessed on the criteria found in the grading rubric for this assignment to assess Quantitative Reasoning at the Reinforced Level.
Citation and reference style instructions are available at https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/. Also, see Trident University\’s Student Guide to Writing a High-Quality Academic Paper.
You will find the following useful as you critique sources:
Cornell University. (2015). Critically analyzing information sources: Critical appraisal and analysis. Retrieved from http://olinuris.library.cornell.edu/ref/research/skill26.htm
Cornell University. (2014). Evaluating Web sites: Criteria and tools. Retrieved from http://olinuris.library.cornell.edu/ref/research/webeval.html
Leadership and Change Assignment Module 4 – SLP
MANAGING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
For the Module 4 SLP assignment think about a major organizational change that occurred in your workplace. Think carefully about the steps taken by management during the change process, and the organizational change processes and concepts that you read about in the background materials. Then write a 2- to 3-page paper addressing the following issues. Make sure to cite at least two of the required background readings on organizational change in your paper:
1. Describe the change that occurred in your workplace, and list the major steps or stages involved in this change.
2. What stages were successful during this process, and which ones were problematic or handled poorly?
3. Do a side-by-side comparison between the steps you listed in your answer to Question 1 and the steps used in Lewin’s three steps, Kotter’s eight steps, or the five-step approach of action research. What were the key similarities and differences between these models and the ones used in your organization?
4. Based on your answers to Questions 2 and 3, do you think the change process would have gone better if management used Lewin’s three steps, Kotter’s eight steps, or the five-step approach of action research?
SE MATERIALS/BIBLIOGRAPHY REFERENCES
Bauer, T., & Erdogan, B. (2012). Chapter 12.2: Who is a leader? Trait approaches to leadership. In Organizational behavior. Saylor Academy.
Bauer, T., & Erdogan, B. (2012). Chapter 12.3: What do leaders do? Behavioral approaches to leadership. In Organizational behavior. Saylor Academy.
Hartzell, S. (2013). Management vs. leadership. Education Portal. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VeT12i0cppE
Hiriyappa, B. (2009). Chapter 10: Dynamics of managerial leadership. In Organizational behavior. New Delhi: New Age International. [EBSCO eBook Collection]
Kelly, Tom. ( © 2007). Leadership characteristics. [Video File]. [Books24x7 version]
Avery, G. (2004). Chapter 4: Micro-level leadership theories. In Understanding leadership: Paradigms and cases. London: SAGE Publications Ltd. [EBSCO eBook Collection]
Landsberg, M. (2011). Chapter 17: Leading or managing? In The tools of leadership: Vision, inspiration, momentum. London: Profile Books Ltd. [EBSCO eBook Collection]
Springer, M. (2013). Chapter 19: Managers, leaders, and entrepreneurs. In Project and project management: A competency-based approach. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press. [EBSCO eBook Collection]
Avery, G. (2011). Contingency theories: Situations matter. In Chapter 4 of Understanding leadership: Paradigms and cases. London: SAGE Publications Ltd. [Available in EBSCO eBook Collection.]
Note: You don’t have to read all of Chapter 4, just the section on contingency theories in the last few pages of the chapter.
Ayman, R. (2002). Chapter 7: Contingency model of leadership effectiveness: Challenges and achievements. In L. L. Neider & C. A. Schriesheim (Eds.), Leadership. [Books24x7 version]
Bauer, T., & Erdogan, B. (2012). Chapter 12.4: What is the role of the context? Contingency approaches to leadership. In Organizational behavior. Saylor Academy.
Evans, M. G. (2002). Chapter 4: Path-Goal theory of leadership. In L. L. Neider & C. A. Schriesheim (Eds.), Leadership. [Books24x7 version]
Ibarra, H. (2015). Situational leadership. [Books24x7 version]
Alanis Business Academy. (2014, April 6). The Path-Goal Theory of leadership [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pRSio5j3Iy4
Kadian-Baumeyer, K. (2013). Hersey-Blanchard\’s Model of Situational Leadership [Video file]. Education Portal. Retrieved from https://study.com/academy/lesson/hersey-blanchards-model-of-situational-leadership.html
Barine, A., & Minja, D. (2012). Chapter 2: Definitions of transformational leadership. In Transformational corporate leadership (pp. 32-47). Luton, Bedfordshire, GBR: Andrews LTD. [eBook Business Collection]
Cohn, A. (2018). Be more charismatic. [Books24x7 version] Available in the Trident Online Library.
Luthans, F., Luthans, K. W., & Luthans, B. C. (2015). Chapter 13: Effective leadership processes. In Organizational Behavior: An Evidence-based Approach (pp. 390-393). Charlotte, North Carolina: Information Age Publishing. Retrieved from EBSCO eBook Collection. [eBook Business Collection]
Maxwell, John C. ( © 2017). Be a leader that others want to follow. [Video File]. [Books24x7 version]
Paschen, M., & Dihsmaier, E. (2014). The psychology of human leadership: How to develop
charisma and authority. Chapter 2: Leadership, Personality, and Charisma: How to Generate Leadership Strength Through Confidence and Trust. Retrieved from EBSCO eBook Collection. [eBook Business Collection]
Wood, A. (2009). Becoming a transformational leader. [Video File]. [Books24x7 version]. Available in the Trident Online Library.
Wood, A. (2009). Becoming a transformational leader. Retrieved from EBSCO eBook Collection. [eBook Business Collection]
Note: You don’t have to read the whole chapter, just the pages on charismatic, transformational, and transactional leadership. You may have to go directly to EBSCO eBook Collection to look up this book. Go to the “Additional Library Resources” link at the lower left-hand side of the Online Classroom & Library section of the main TLC portal.
Avery, G. (2011). Chapter 5: Emotion in leadership. In Understanding leadership: Paradigms and cases. London: SAGE Publications Ltd. [EBSCO eBook Collection]
Leadership and Change Assignment Module 4
Center for Education Innovation. (n.d.). Stages of an action research project. Retrieved from http://cei.ust.hk/files/public/ar_intro_stages_of_an_action_research_project.pdf
Hartzell, S. (2014, April 27). Lewin, stage model of change unfreezing changing refreezing animatedpart5 [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kerDFvln7hU
(If this link is down then use: http://rachel.golearn.us/modules/en-oya/business-101/webpages/Chapter6/5-lewins-3-stage-model-of-change-unfreezing-changing-refreezing.html)
Hartzell, S. (2014, December 15). Explaining Kotter’s 8 step change model [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YJ3EGdZ3_pU
(If this link is down then use: http://rachel.golearn.us/modules/en-oya/business-101/webpages/Chapter6/7-kotters-8-step-change-model-of-management.html)
Kotter, J. P. (2007). Leading change: Why transformation efforts fail. Harvard Business Review, 85(1), 96-103. [Business Source Complete]
Mind Tools Editorial Team. (2014). Lewin’s change management model. Mind tools. https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newPPM_94.htm
Anson, J. H. (2011). Leaders are the critical element in the network: Applying the Kotter Change model in shaping future information systems. Army Communicator, 36(4), 20-27. [Academic Source Complete]
Haneberg, L. (2005). Chapter 3: The action research approach to change. In Organization development basics (pp. 21-43). Alexandria, VA: American Society for Training & Development. [EBSCO eBook Collection]
Schein, E. H. (2010). Part 4, Chapter 17: A conceptual model for managed cultural change. In Jossey-Bass business and management: Organizational culture and leadership (4th Edition). Hoboken, NJ, USA: Jossey-Bass. [EBSCO eBook Collection]
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