DNP 815 Week 3 Middle Range Theories Discussions

DNP 815 Week 3 Middle Range Theories Discussions

DNP 815 Week 3 Middle Range Theories Discussions

DNP 815 Week 3 Discussions

DQ 1 Compare and contrast a minimum of two middle range theories and discuss potential applications in your specific area of nursing practice.

DQ 2 Conduct a literature search in the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) using the terms middle range theory, mid-range theory, and nursing. Select one of the articles where the development of the middle range theory is the major focus of the paper. Share the article citation and describe how the theory was developed.

Grand and Middle Range Nursing Theories Discussion

Grand and middle range nursing theories have been used in the field of nursing for many years. Grand nursing theories provide a framework for key concepts to be identified. Middle range nursing theories are more specific in nature (Davydov, 2014). Middle range nursing theories aim to describe, explain, and predict an event. In this paper, a grand nursing theory and a middle range nursing theory will be discussed. These theories will be discussed how they contribute to the field of nursing and how they may benefit research.

Model and Role Model Theory

The model and role model theory was developed by Helen Erickson, Evelyn Tomlin, and Ann Swain. The model and role model theory is a grand nursing theory. The theory is based on concepts derived from; Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs, Erickson’s theory of psychosocial stages, Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, and General Adaptation Syndrome by Selve and Lazarus (Horsburgh, 2018).

Modeling is when a nurse seeks to know and understand the patient’s personal model of his or her world and learns to appreciate its value and sign. Role modeling is when the nurse facilitates and nurtures the individual in attaining, maintaining, and promoting health. The nurse accepts the patient and allows for unique interventions. There are five goals of nursing intervention in the model and role model theory, they are as follows; build trust, promote the patients positive orientation, promote the patients control, affirm and promote the patients strengths, and set mutual, health directed goals (Horsburgh, 2018). The role of the nurse in the model and role model theory are to facilitate, nurture, and provide unconditional acceptance.

Middle range nursing theories are more specific in focus and offer more concrete connections. The health belief model was developed in the late 1950’s by the United States Public Health Social Psychologist who wanted to explain why so few people were participating in programs to prevent and detect disease. The health belief model was used to address problem behaviors that evoke health concerns such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and increased sexual behaviors. There are four critical areas of the health belief model, they are; severity of potential illness, persons susceptible to that illness, benefits of taking a preventative action, and barriers of taking action (Jones et al., 2015). The health belief model focuses on patient compliance and preventative health care. Healthy behaviors are influenced by a patient’s perceived threat posed by health problems. The relationship is between the patient beliefs and their behavior.

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Research

Nursing theories can be applied to various research methods, topics, and articles. The model and role model theory was applied to research conducted at the Imperial College of London. The goal of the research was to determine if the act of role modeling by teachers or professors benefited students. Role modeling is widely accepted as being a highly used as a teaching and learning method in clinical environments. The goal of the research is to gain insight into medical students and clinical teachers understanding of learning through role modeling. Horsburgh and Ippolito (2018), used a qualitative method, and interview six students and five clinical instructors. Students were able to identify ways in which they learned from their instructors, and often imitated them while performing a task. The research article concluded that while role modeling in a clinical setting may be difficult, many students learned from watching their instructor perform the task prior.

The health belief model has been used quite frequently in private practice and in health promotion. Recently, BMC women’s health utilized the health belief model to determine why women may choose or not to choose to have their ovaries removed to prevent cancer. BMC used a qualitative study and conducted eighteen interviews with women have been seen at a cancer treatment center in Australia (Herrmann et al, 2018). These women utilized the four concepts of the health belief model to determine if they should or should not have both of their ovaries removed. Many of the women had increased anxiety regarding developing cancer, and thus opted to have their ovaries removed. They perceived their risk of getting cancer as a threat and chose to have their ovaries removed.

Conclusion

In conclusion, grand and middle range nursing theories are beneficial to be utilized during patient teaching, goal setting, and patient decision making. Nurse practitioners and registered nurses may utilize the model and role model theory or the health belief model tin their practice to care for their patients. Many people are visual learners and seeing a task being done can assist with retaining the information and patient compliance.

Nursing theories as the ones discussed in this paper are utilized in various specialties and not solely in health care. Determining what needs the patient has will help determine what theory or method works best for patient education, learning, communication, increasing patient compliance rates, and provider patient relationships.

References

Davydov, M. (2014). Middle range theory for nursing. Nurses in Professional Development, 30(6):316.

Herrmann, A., Hall, A., & Proietto, A. (2018). Using the health belief model to explore why women decide for or against the removal of their ovaries to reduce their risk of developing cancer. BMC Medical Education, 18:184. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-018-1251-x

Horsburgh, J., & Ippolito, K. (2018). A skill to be worked at: using social learning theory to explore the process of learning from role models in clinical settings. BMC Medical Education, 18:156. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-018-0673-2

Jones, C. L., Jensen, J. D., Scherr, C. L., Brown, N. R., Christy, K., & Weaver, J. (2015). The Health Belief Model as an explanatory framework in communication research: exploring parallel, serial, and moderated mediation. Health communication, 30(6), 566–576. https://doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2013.873363

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